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The War In Ukraine And Its Impacts On Africa (2)



Dele Jegede In Conversation With Prince Yemisi Shyllon


Toyin Falola

With Ukraine, the relationship is more recent. Kiev and Tunisian officials signed an economic memorandum in 1992 and created a joint intergovernmental commission on economic cooperation, commerce, science and technology in 1993. Agreements in 2016 ranged from automatic equivalency for Ukrainian diplomas in sciences apart from medicine, direct flights between the capitals of both countries, and easier visa application processes for Tunisians visiting Ukraine. The fruits manifested in higher inflows of Ukrainian tourists into Tunisia and a high population of Tunisian students studying in the country. Ukravauto, a Ukrainian car manufacturer, also opened a factory in Tunisia in 2017, and subsequent agreements have extended to the banking sector, where both liaise on monetary policy and foreign exchange regulation. In 2021, Ukraine further committed to assisting Tunisia in providing training and development to its military.

However, with current events, Russia and Ukraine’s partnership with the Maghreb state is bound to reduce. Both have implemented export bans to improve their food security and are focused on fueling their war machines. As a result, Tunisia is eyeing new horizons, particularly those that promise food. Its government has stated that it is considering Uruguay, Bulgaria, Argentina, and Romania for critical supplies. The president has also threatened to punish food speculators who contribute to the hike in prices. Furthermore, Tunisia is pressing for a $4 billion loan from the International Monetary Fund. And as is the norm with the organization’s loans, it is required to make broad policy changes that include an overhaul of its subsidy programs and a review of its public sector wage bill. However, problems lie in its implementation. President Saied’s approval ratings, which are not what they used to be, heavily depend on his ability to pacify the discontent. His government lags in salary payments, especially those of the armed forces who protect his rule. He is also considering cutting fuel subsidy, a move that risks the ire of lately paid workers. Although the European Union has promised a tranche of €450 million to support the Tunisian budget and further investments over the years, it remains to be seen how Tunisia handles this.

Motivated by the unfavorable assessment of Morocco’s human rights record by the US State Department, the kingdom sought to deepen relations with Russia in 2002. It started with a first-time visit by Mohammed VI, and the focus was the countries’ free trade agreement. There was also the subject of expanding Russian access to Moroccan fisheries in an effort to shift from the United States. But the relationship has existed for far longer than this. Russo-Moroccan ties stretch as far back as 1777, when leaders from both states communicated through letters.

In the twenty-first century, both have expressed commitments through visits to each other’s countries — twice in two decades by the Moroccan monarch and once in 2006 by Vladimir Putin. Though interjected by Morocco’s efforts to maintain its partnership with the West, Rabat and Moscow have interacted on issues cutting across military and economic sectors. Recently, the two nations signed eleven agreements in a single day, indicating a willingness to further relations. Moscow once offered its sophisticated missile defence system to Morocco and has also stated its intention to assist in constructing thermal power plants in the country.

Similarly, Russia expressed its readiness to support the construction of a gas terminal in Morocco’s Jorf Lasfar. The estimated spend for this project is in the region of $2 billion. And even as they continue to make strides in their energy and military agreements, the sides have progressed in economic depth. In 2016, trade volume between Russia and Morocco stood at $3 billion. Exports from the country to Russia in 2019 were estimated at $286 million, with imports at $1.3 billion. A 20 percent increase in Russian exports to Morocco was also recorded in the first half of 2021. Morocco being Russia’s second-largest trading partner in the Arab world demonstrates how far they have both gone in terms of economic cooperation.

READ ALSO: The War In Ukraine And Its Impacts On Africa (1)

Like its North African counterparts, Morocco imports grain from Russia and Ukraine. The country is in a more secure position as it possesses substantial reserves to hedge against the conflict, unlike others. In 2020, it imported close to $300 million worth of Ukrainian grain and $110 million of Russia’s. Morocco’s ties with Russia are further symbolized by the popularity of Moroccan citrus fruits. Its oranges are a regular part of Russia’s new year festivities, adding grassroots meaning to the relationship. This dynamic puts Morocco in a fix between its western loyalties and its bond with Russia. This was evident in its refusal to participate in a UN vote to criticize Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. Aside from grain, Russia’s mineral, chemical, and energy exports will be affected. This is as Morocco is highly dependent on imported energy, with 90 percent of its needs augmented by external sources. There is also the possibility that Morocco’s tourist car exports to Russia and Ukraine will be affected. According to data by the Moroccan Exchange Office, the sector witnessed a 12.8 percent increase in 2021.

Yet, the situation is not utterly bleak. Research has indicated that Morocco may gain from the Russia-Ukraine conflict. Phosphate, an essential ingredient in manufacturing fertilizers, is one product the country has in abundance. The war already limits Russia’s exports, setting the stage for entry by fresh suppliers. Morocco’s phosphate reserves are estimated at 50 billion tons, making it the second-largest in the world after China. Its stock also constitutes 72 percent of the total reserves available globally. Morocco’s position is enhanced by the presence of the OCP Group, a phosphate production giant in the country. The company’s logistical and production capabilities have been instrumental to Rabat’s emergence. OCP Group recorded $9 billion in profits in 2021 and is set to increase production by 10 percent in 2022. The country is already receiving attention as India looks to procure more phosphate to supplement its reserves.

READ ALSO: Russian, Ukrainian Officials Hold Peace Talks In Turkey

Algeria’s relationship with the Russian Federation dates back to its independence years. Algeria had fought a brutal eight-year war with France before finally securing autonomy. Since then, Moscow and Algiers have been diplomatic partners, with the Soviet Union lending billions of dollars to the Arab country. In 2001, both signed a declaration of strategic partnership, and five years later, Algeria became Africa’s biggest buyer of Russian arms. The weapons deal worth $7.5 billion in that year has expanded into several arms purchases in 2010, 2012, 2013, and 2015. It has continued with these purchases, with a recent agreement running into scores of Russian military equipment. Between 2014-and 2018, Moscow supplied as much as 66 percent of Algeria’s arsenal. Sales to Algeria alone constitute half of Russia’s entire weapons sales to the African continent. The Russo-Algerian partnership has also extended to counter-terrorism operations, with both countries exchanging intelligence on terrorist activities in North Africa.

Algeria is not only a crucial military partner, but it also shares some ideological similarities with Russia. The two nations have a tender spot for authoritarian rule and are quick to dispatch any opposition to their dictates. The 2019 Algerian riots provide a classic study of Russia’s interest in a non-democratic leadership. While Moscow chose to refrain from direct interference, its body language suggested a desire for leaders with little regard for Western leadership principles. Similarities can also be found in the South African and Algerian cases highlighted earlier. Due to its colonial experience, the latter consistently maintains opposition to actions violating territorial sovereignty. It is equally reactive to occasions that appear to threaten its sovereignty. Lending weight to this principled nature is the Algerian capital’s reputation as the “Mecca of the revolutionaries.” However, Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has attracted reticence on Algeria’s part. The country was among the 35 nations that abstained from the UN resolution condemning the invasion. This position implies Algeria’s preference for a smooth relationship with Russia.

READ ALSO: Ukraine May Opt For Neutral Status Over NATO To End War

There is also the issue of distrust of the West’s intentions in Algerian circles. The US-led diplomatic coalition against Russia is accused of double standards in its treatment of the conflict. Still, the picture is not so simple. Even with its seeming friendliness, Algeria maintains a fair connection to the West. An example is its membership of the Mediterranean Dialogue, despite lacking a designation as a major non-NATO ally. Remaining in the Dialogue for two decades alongside Morocco, Israel, and other players in the Middle East is an indication that the West views it as an essential partner. Algeria also collaborates on counter-terrorism efforts but has refrained from engaging in conflict areas.

Part of the Talking Points at the International Colloquium on Russia-Ukraine War and Implication For Global Security, Pease and New World Order, organized by the Centre for Black Culture and Understanding, Osogbo, Nigeria, March 22, 2022

Falola is a Nigerian historian and professor of African Studies. He is currently the Jacob and Frances Sanger Mossiker Chair in the Humanities at the University of Texas at Austin.


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Where Are Secular Lawyers?



Witch Burning, Impunity And Abuses Linked to Witchcraft Beliefs In Benue State
Dr Leo Igwe

By Leo Igwe

This question has agitated me over the years, and it persists. At a recent event in Uyo, Akwa Ibom state, a participant introduced herself as a member of the Christian Lawyers Association of Nigeria. Christian Lawyers Association? I wondered, Why Christian lawyers? Why should lawyers associate based on faith? Do we have a traditional religious lawyers association? Jehovah Witness Lawyers Association? Bahai Faith lawyers? Hindu Lawyers? I mean, why the religionization of everything in this country?

In northern Nigeria, the Muslim Lawyers Association exists. This organization is active. It features prominently in cases, especially those that concern religion, Sharia, or Islam. I guess there would be Sunni and Shiite Muslim lawyers associations. In 2022, over 30 Muslim lawyers came forward to defend those suspected of murdering Deborah Samuel in Sokoto. Meanwhile, no member helped prosecute the suspects. Muslim lawyers have strongly supported the execution and imprisonment of suspected blasphemers. They constitute the legal wing of Islamic separatism in Nigeria. This religious slant in practice, profession, and association of lawyers is disturbing and needs to be critically examined.

Look, a lawyer is a person trained to offer legal services. A lawyer is trained to represent an individual or organization in legal matters. S/he applies the law to specific cases, religious or nonreligious. The legal profession should be carried out without religious bias or favor. The law should be practiced to further justice, equity, and fairness, not in defense of a particular faith or belief. In practice, the law should be faith/belief blind. Unfortunately, this appears not to be the case in Nigeria. The tendency of lawyers to associate along religious lines is entrenched. As in other sectors of the society, religion has hijacked the legal profession and association. Lawyers practice and are pressured to practice law along religious lines. That is the raison d’etre of the religious (Christian/Muslim) lawyers association. And it is worrisome.

It has become pertinent to ask, where are secular lawyers? Put differently, where are lawyers beyond belief? By secular lawyers, I mean lawyers who are not religious, that is, lawyers who are atheists or agnostics; lawyers who do not take religion seriously. Secular lawyers include those who think that religious and spiritual matters are strictly private affairs and should not be the basis for legal practice, profession, and association.

Nigeria needs secular lawyers for the following reasons. First, based on section 10 of the constitution, Nigeria is a secular state, although not explicitly stated. Nigeria has no state religion. But theocrats often contest Nigeria’s secularity and openly propose that sharia and their religious books are superior to the constitution. The country needs lawyers to defend and uphold its secular character and help prevent the slow undoing of the secular gains and progress that Nigeria has made. Nigeria needs lawyers who can champion secularism. And secular lawyers can fulfill this need.

Second, Nigeria needs secular lawyers to professionally and constitutionally handle cases linked to faith or belief, such as witchcraft, blasphemy, and apostasy allegations. Lawyers who practice or associate on grounds of faith cannot be trusted to handle these cases because they are likely to compromise. They are likely to sacrifice their profession on the altar of their faith. For instance, it is a challenge to find lawyers to defend victims of witchcraft accusations because most lawyers, as people of faith, believe in the reality of witches and demons. Even though witchcraft accusations are against the law. Religious lawyers cannot be trusted to render professional services to victims of witchcraft branding. The same thing applies to cases of blasphemy and apostasy accusations. These accusations are linked to religious beliefs. Many lawyers do not want to profess law in ways that violate their faith. So, faith is a factor in hiring an attorney or getting a reliable solicitor.

In cases where Christians are accused of blaspheming Islam or insulting the prophet of Islam, Christian lawyers volunteer. They offer to help. Religious (Christian or Muslim) lawyers consider it a duty to defend their members. Christian lawyers defended Rhoda in Bauchi or the Christian barber, Elijah, in Kano. Muslim lawyers defended the suspected murderers of Deborah Samuel. But it is more challenging when the accused is a nonbeliever, an atheist, or a nonreligious person. Religious lawyers are reluctant to take up the cases. Religious lawyers cannot be trusted or entrusted with these cases because of concerns over religious bias.  Christian lawyers are guided by their christian faith and muslim lawyers are guided by their Islamic faith in their legal practice and representation.
So secular lawyers are needed. They can be trusted to represent in these cases because, in principle, they are free from the faith baggage that encumber legal representations by christian/muslim lawyers. Nigeria needs secular lawyers to keep church, mosque and state separate, and to ensure state neutrality on religious matters. It needs secular lawyers to tackle religious oppression, persecution and tyranny. Nigeria needs secular lawyers to uphold the rule of law and defend the freedom of religion or belief of all.
 Igwe, PhD,  is a board member of the Humanist Association of Nigeria.

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Minister Dangiwa Versus Cement Cabals



Felix Oboagwina

By Felix Oboagwina

Wednesday, 31st October 2023, CEO of BUA Cement, Abdul Samad Rabiu, paid a visit to President Bola Ahmed Tinubu in Aso Rock. As he walked out of the President’s office, journalists swarmed round Rabiu. To cut this narrative short, the billionaire businessman said he had come to assure the President that by March 2024, a bag of BUA Cement would start selling at N3,500 instead of N4,500 for which it then sold. The market leader, Dangote Cement, retailed for between N5,000 and N7,000 per bag. The hike not only alarmed but frustrated users because just two months earlier, Dangote Cement sold for a lower price of N3,500 max. The jump in price annoyed Nigerians. Thus, when the media went to town with Rabiu’s assurance of crashing the price, the news provoked much happiness nationwide.

Easier said than done, however, Rabiu’s optimism quickly evaporated into thin air. Mysteriously, thereafter, the price of cement went crazy and bizarre. The popular 50kg bag of cement flew to N10,000, then N12,000 and landed at N15,000. This year, Dangote Cement PLC reported a profit of N166 billion for first quarter of 2024.

In Nigeria, the dominant cement brands are Dangote, BUA, Lafarge and Elephant. For a country of 250 million, being serviced by four brands sounds like a monopoly or oligopoly, when a few companies exert significant control over a given market and together control prices by colluding with each other to promote uncompetitive prices. Today, manufacturers blame the skyrocketing rates on the falling value of the Naira. From the N700 per dollar pre-May 2023, the Naira had gone to exchange for N1,600 to the dollar, although it has now dropped to about N1,200. In addition to using the unhealthy Naira as scapegoat, cement makers blame the high cost on expensive gas and manufacturing equipment.

However, in the midst of the darkness, a silver lining appeared to appear from the midst of Tinubu’s cabinet ministers.

There are 46 ministers, although 13 of them wear the title of Junior Minister or Minister of State and 33 substantive ones. Suddenly, two substantive ministers called cement manufacturers to a meeting. The meeting by Dave Umahi, Works Minister, took place first on Monday, February 19, 2024. At that meeting, the minister and manufacturers fixed the price of cement at between N7,000 and N8,000 max.

The following day Tuesday in Abuja, Ahmed Dangiwa, Minister of Housing and Urban Development, also met representatives of the Cement Manufacturer Association of Nigeria (CEMAN). And there things exploded. Dangiwa displayed uncommon knowledge of all the tricks and shenanigans. He told the producers the implication of their pricing: “This is a crisis for housing delivery. An increase in essential building materials means an increase in the prices of houses.”

For Dangiwa, the reasons for the price hike were insufficient to justify such outrageous pricing. He confronted them with the bare facts, that the government stopped cement importation to enable local companies to increase output and lower prices.

Then he dropped the banger: “Government can open the borders for mass importation of cement, the price will crash, but you will have no business to do.”

When CEMAN said the association “does not interfere with the pricing of cement,” Dangiwa hit back with, “One person cannot be selling at N3,500 per bag and another selling at N7,000 per bag and you cannot call them to order. The association is expected to monitor price control; otherwise, the association has no need to exist.”

Where the President and the Works Minister pacified and appeared to have lost touch with reality, Dangiwa spoke to manufacturers in the language they understood. He threatened them. Government, Dangiwa said, could fling open the borders to tame prices.

He told them: “We know that some of the key components of producing building materials, especially cement, are locally sourced, so the recurring disproportionate increase in the price of cement is unacceptable and unreasonable. Key input materials such as limestone, clay, silica sand, and gypsum within our borders should not be dollar-rated.

“You cannot continue to give excuses and blame it on the dollar all the time. The worst part is that other building materials manufacturers take a cue from cement manufacturers, and once they see that you increase your price, they do the same. Recently, this is happening almost every week, and it has to stop.”

Fact is Nigeria has been hijacked by cartels. They have the country by the jugular mercilessly. Like cartels the world over, the Nigerian business profiteers nurse the motive of profiteering at all costs. Governments have been unwilling to confront them and break that hold today. Past pro-people regimes behaved otherwise.

General Murtala Mohammed imported Argentinean beef to force down the price of meat in the market.

General Gowon goes down in history for the Cement Armada. Ships upon ships upon ships of cement harboured at the Apapa Lagos port and crashed the price of the product.

In his own time, when the price of cement rose astronomically and the country complained, Goodluck Jonathan, in May 16, 2011, invited producers to Aso Rock and gave Dangote, BUA and others 30 days to crash cement price to N1,000. They succumbed.

While that drama played out, four cement manufacturers in February 2013 wrote to Jonathan to demand import licences, calling themselves “Cement New Entrants Stakeholders.” They each wanted to be granted papers by Jonathan to import 5 million metric tons of cement. According to them, granting import licences was a sure way of forcing down cement price to between N500 and N1,000 per bag and breaking the current monopoly of the “cartel” in the industry.

There is much to learn from this engagement. Monopolistic profiteering dictates cement pricing in Nigeria. The monopoly flaunts every excuse to justify the high price, which the proposed independent importers told Jonathan was “making Nigeria to be classified as the country with the highest price of cement in the world” with the ex-factory price then fixed between N1,400 and N1,800 per bag.

That is the way to go. Good history ought to repeat itself. Open the borders. Grant licences to import. Create competition. It will amount to a win-win for Nigerians because cement imports will create a new line of businesses as well as jobs through the value chain of importation, ports, clearing, re-bagging, warehousing, marketing, advertising, distribution and retailing. This the Housing Minister Dangiwa knows as a professional architect, a player in the building industry and a politician who wants to deliver pocket-friendly housing to the masses.

He had similarly maintained this humane stance when, as Managing Director of the Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria (FMBN, 2015–2022), he packed several human-faced, pro-people policies into his tenure. He processed N39.5 billion worth of refunds to 247,521 retired Federal housing contributors. Under him, FMBN made available NHF mortgage loans to 5,900 beneficiaries as well as home renovation loans to 77,500 people. He, also, led efforts to develop the Diaspora mortgage loan. This innovative scheme specifically aimed at assisting Nigerians living abroad to own homes without the weeping tales of getting duped by relatives or friends in Nigeria.

Minister Dangiwa knows that ONLY the cartels’ insatiable greed propels the price of cement sky-high. Exorcising this evil begins with taming the profiteers and making them sell cement to Nigerians at the N3,500 per bag that CEO of BUA Cement, Abdul Samad Rabiu, promised Tinubu at Aso Rock.

Oboagwina is an author, journalist and publisher, reachable via

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Money Without Family Relationship: A Time Bomb!



The Futility Of A Marital Chase
Dr Hope Nwawolo

Money Without Family Relationship: A Time Bomb!

By Hope Nwawolo

Recently, l came across a trending post of a 72-year-old pensioner, who was said to have worked all his life to raise his kids. The writer of the post claimed the man was abandoned by his children whom he trained in expensive schools, at home and abroad.  It was further disclosed that his 65-year-old wife, had relocated to live with her children abroad, on the excuse of taking care of their grandchildren. The writer went on to paint the gloomy picture of the man as a bachelor once again and battling with high blood pressure and other old age ailments. He cautioned men that women love their children more than their husbands, so they should plan for their future. He erroneously put the number of such women at 97%.

This piece is in response to the above biased claim which is also capable of causing friction in homes striving for unity and togetherness. He may just succeed to plant a negative seed of distrust and discord in the minds of fickle-minded men, who before reading the article were enjoying a blissful relationship with their wives. It may also be possible that the writer is a disgruntled person who did not succeed in marriage or relationship and believes the same must be for all men.

When we see people like the writer portrayed, we should ask a pertinent question. What was the man’s relationship with his wife and children when he was ‘struggling’ to fend for them? Unfortunately, some men fail to realize that there is so much more in family life than money. In as much as money ‘answereth’ all things, it cannot be exchanged for lasting family relationship. 

Some men literally shove their wives aside while making the money without realizing the children see the treatment of their mothers. When some of these children become independent and financially stable, they feel obligated to compensate their mothers for the loveless treatment received from their fathers. In other cases, some men do not value family time, no matter how short, and would not understand the emotional craving of the wives and children when they really need it. Often, it is these women, that stay in the  gap in their absence, making the children bond more with  them. And instead of appreciating such women for filling in their physical vacuum, some men rather get jealous of the bond and further drift away from the children, while blaming the wife. 

Today, wise men make out time to pray, discuss, and have family outings with their families. This is called relationship building, which cannot be broken by distance in the future. The children from these homes grow up with memories of fun and family laughter. The women from such homes, have strong relationship with their husbands and will not stay more than one month when they go to visit their children. You will hear them say to the children, “Please, l want to go back to my husband.”  Why is nobody talking about them?

There are also couples who travel together to visit their children from time to time. So what stops a man from also going to visit his children whom he struggled to train? Is it that they did not invite him, and why? Perhaps they have no relationship! 

The claim of 97% women who abandon their husbands for their children is not empirical, cannot be scientifically proven, and is unfair to women. It also has the tendency to put fears into innocent men who are building strong relationships with their wives and children. I pray such men do not abandon their effort after reading such a biased write-up…for their own good! Every marriage and family is unique and should have values and principles that will bind its members together today, tomorrow, and in the future. This should override the quest for money if it cannot be combined with building lasting relationships with every member of the family.

Nowadays, while many men believe their provision of money for the home is the answer to family issues, the women sacrifice key factors that cannot be monetized, and build lasting relationships with the children. These vital factors are their tears and worries, emotional support, and constant prayers, among many others. Observably too,  some women are also contributing financially to feeding and sometimes, schools fees, as well as other necessities of the families. Despite these, they  find time to ensure that the family bond is maintained as best as possible. Unfortunately, the ego rather than complex of some men will not allow them acknowledge or appreciate the effort of these women and which the children obviously witness as they grow into independence and financial stability.

Therefore, instead of blaming women for the unpalatable fruit of old age loneliness as a result of early years of family emotional neglect, men should attempt to juggle their quest for money with building relationships that will see them through the evening of their lives, with members of the families. 

 Nwawolo, PhD, writes via


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