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The PDP Crisis And The People’s Interest



The PDP Crisis And The People's Interest

By Raymond Oise-Oghaede
It is no longer news that the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) has been caught up in crisis following the outcome of the presidential primaries which produced H.E. Atiku Abubakar as the candidate. The genesis of the problem could be hinged on the allegation of imbalance in the composition of the leadership positions in favour of the North against the South. This cause of action is spearheaded by H.E. Nyesom Wike, governor of Rivers State with the support of four other governors and some prominent leaders of the party. Consequently, they have called for and are still insisting that the chairman of the party, Senator Iyorchia Ayu (from the North) must resign for a southerner to take his position. These proponents are relying on an alleged promise made by Ayu before the exercise that he will relinquish the position should a northern candidate emerges from the process. After the emergence of Atiku, the chairman was called upon to honour his words; but, he has failed to do so. As such, Wike and his allies comprising H.E. Samuel Ortom, governor of Benue state; H.E. Okezie Ikpeazu of Abia; H.E. Seyi Makinde of Oyo; H.E. Ifeanyi Ugwuanyi of Enugu; H.E. Donald Duke, former governor of Cross Rivers; H.E. Olusegun Mimiko, former governor of Ondo; H.E. Jonah Jang, former governor of Plateau; and, Prof. Jerry Gana to mention but a few have excused themselves from having anything to do with the presidential campaign until the needful is done. Their adamancy has caused serious concern in the party and efforts are ongoing to see how best they could resolve it.

Though, the crisis is an internal party issue and, I do not have a problem with leaving it at that, but, this review is informed by the statement made by the chairman on Monday 10th instant during the kickoff of the party’s presidential campaign in Uyo that “Nigerians are not interested in the crisis going on in the PDP……..”. In as much as I am well convinced that this is a harmless remark for political expediency, I am equally of the opinion that the crux of the ongoing crisis in the party is very sensitive and should be of serious concern/interest to all well-meaning Nigerians for the following reasons;

The allegation of imbalance in the composition of key positions in favour of the north against the south is extremely weighty; and, capable of pushing us back to the era of politics of north-south dichotomy with grave consequences.

 READ ALSO: After Trip To Spain, Wike Wants PDP To Apologise Over Atiku’s Comment

The PDP is presently the main opposition party to check the activities of the government towards encouraging competitiveness and effectiveness of governance as applicable in all modern democracies of the world.

There is need to quickly find an amicable resolution to the imbroglio to forestall the same from degenerating or escalating into a major crisis because of the party’s national outlook which would make it very easy for crisis within the party to spread across the nook and cranny of the country; and,

The party, like others, will provide the electorate with options to make their desired choice of candidates at the polls.

Consequent upon the aforementioned, it is very pertinent for every well-meaning Nigerian to be interested in the matter because of what it portends if not properly tackled. Therefore, with all due respect to Mr. Chairman Sir, you will agree with me that it should rather be a thing of great concern to you and other leaders/members if Nigerians are not interested in the crisis going on in your party; thus, we are very much interested and, we are calling for its amicable and urgent resolution.

In my two recent articles titled “THE DELICATE ETHNO-RELIGIOUS ROAD TO 2023” and “LEARNING TO WALK AGAIN INDEPENDENTLY AT 62”, I delved into issues bordering on ethno-religious factors in the country’s political arena; such as, the alleged jettisoning of the zoning arrangement in the PDP; the APC’s Muslim-Muslim ticket; the call for Senator Ayu’s resignation; and, the tribal and religious tendencies of the third force movements. These cases were looked into from non-partisan perspectives by outlining the inherent dangers and discouraging the people from allowing the facts in issues to push us back to the unpleasant situations of the bygone days. Flowing from the aforesaid, I (as an interested Nigerian) would want to crave the indulgence of the leadership of the party to come to equity with clean hands to consider this unique review with the aim of finding workable and lasting solutions to the imbroglio.

READ ALSO: PDP Crisis Deepens As Wike’s Camp Shuns Atiku Campaign, Insists On Ayu’s Removal

The issue of zoning arrangement or understanding which is the foundation of the problem could be addressed from both legal and political angles. Looking at it from the legal aspect, the party has not contravened any known law or rules in the process that led to the candidacy of H.E. Alhaji Atiku Abubakar as the flag bearer. The 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (as amended); the newly promulgated Electoral Act, 2022; and, the Constitution of the PDP did not make any provision for the zoning of the office of the president. If this is anything to go by, it means that there is nothing wrong for any eligible person from any part of the country to contest and emerge as the candidate of the party. From the political perspective, the party also made spirited efforts towards ensuring that no particular region or zone was unjustly treated by the setting up of a committee to deliberate on the issue of zoning before the primaries. It was this committee that threw the contest open for every region/zone to vie for the position (even though anything contrary would have been inconsistent with the subsisting law); and, by so doing gave further credence to the right of every eligible individual to contest regardless of his region or zone of origin. Thus, the thoroughness of the selection process adopted by the party is very germane; and, this could be said to be in order.

On the issues pertaining to the chairmanship position, the party did not also breach any known law in the process that produced Senator Iyorchia Ayu as its chairman. Thus, the call for him to resign because he is from the same northern zone with Atiku cannot hold water in the face of the law, since, the subsisting legal framework guiding the process did not preclude any one zone from holding the positions of presidential candidate and chairmanship of the party simultaneously. In the same vein, the allegation of his biasedness during the primaries which was fueled by the mere statement credited to him where he addressed H.E. Aminu Tambuwal, governor of Sokoto state (who earlier stepped down from the contest and urged his supporters to vote for Atiku) as the “Hero of the Convention” would have to be proven on a balance of probabilities by the plaintiffs (the proponents) before a court of competent jurisdiction; and, this is perhaps, the reason why seeking judicial relief was not activated by them. Another point that Ayu gave his words that he will relinquish the position of chairman should a northerner emerge from the primaries; and, the promise Atiku gave to Wike that he would ensure that Ayu is removed will also fall like a pack of cards before the law. However, when the issues are weighed from political or partisan point of view, there is no gainsaying the fact that the Wike’s group has a crucial point for the thoughtfulness of the leaders of the party. The first area of cruciality is their call for balanced representation at the helm of affairs of the party (though, the imbalance was not illegal). To this, the North has conceded the position of the chairman of the Board of Trustees and a Southerner in the person of Senator Adolphus Wabara has taken over in acting capacity, but, the aggrieved parties are still insisting that Ayu must give way for somebody from the south.

At this juncture, it is very important to mention that electioneering is a game of numbers; and, it is very paramount to hold on to the numbers that you have as tightly as possible, especially at a crucial time close to a major election. Members of the Wike’s group are too important to be pushed aside at this critical time; and, as such, there is the need for both sides to make vital sacrifices through effective negotiation towards achieving a WIN-WIN situation. The use of threats or imperious style of seeking redress is uncalled for and should not be encouraged in order not to send wrong signals to the outside world. At this time and age where the most civilized and potent means of achieving conflict resolutions are through negotiations, mediation, conciliation and arbitration, it is very worrisome that this issue is taking a demeaning dimension. A lot of people are trivializing the matter because it is happening within the PDP but, the fact is that, if care is not taken, it could go out of hand because, if the dissenting group should align with any of the southern candidates, the northerners will see it as a direct affront against the north and, before you say jack, the electorate will be divided into the north against the south. Gradually, it will come to a time when governors and national assembly members will be ganging up and revolting against the government at the centre and leadership of the national assembly on ethnic or zonal basis on issues that should ordinarily be resolved within the ambit of the law. One may wonder how this could happen in the face of the law but, the answer is that, the present crisis that has taken this strange dimension is also happening in the face of the PDP’s constitution. The party is in a dilemma because elections are very close; and, it will be unwise to take disciplinary actions against these members but, the fact remains that the issue is not being handled properly. The confrontation the federal government is presently facing on the issue of procurement of automatic weapons for members of a local vigilance group is a typical example of what we are saying.

READ ALSO: Wike, PDP Leaders’ Meeting Ends Without Solution To Crisis

From the foregoing, it is therefore not an exaggeration to say that all the exchanges of derogatory or demeaning statements/remarks going around all over the media and the flying from one country to another in the name of holding crucial meetings are disappointingly unnecessary. They can only worsen the situation rather than helping the cause of action. As I said earlier, this review is not meant to take sides but to say it as it is because the larger picture is more delicate than what is presently playing out. Whether it is pleasant to mention it or not, the fact remains that all the frontline candidates are already playing ethnic and religious cards and, the PDP crisis can compound the situation in the coming weeks/months without proper handling. Therefore, it is my considered opinion that all parties should embark on principled negotiation to arrivie at a WIN-WIN position. Under this arrangement, supercilious mindset(s) are prohibited because parties should be prepared to make sacrifice(s). Whether the individuals involved like it or not, the fact remains that Nigeria’s democracy will still survive without them or their party. The NPC, NCNC, AG, NPN, UPN, NPP, PRP, GNPP, SDP and NRC to mention but a few, were once vibrant political parties in Nigeria and, most of them have either been proscribed or transformed to new parties but, our democracy still survives despite the numerous military interventions. In the present circumstance, Ayu is backed by the law to hold unto his position as chairman but, there is nothing also stopping him from stepping aside or resigning for political expediency, if doing so will lead to or guarantee the overall objective(s) of the party in the coming elections. However, any action to be taken in the cause of settlement must be weighed pari passu with the legal/constitutional implications in order not to push the party into a precarious position where all actions taken will come back to hurt it.

As a result of the aforesaid, I will recommend that the party’s team of legal luminaries should be drafted into the committee already set up to find amicable resolutions to the matter (the committee should be enlarged to also include all the governors and members of the National Assembly elected on the platform of the party). This is necessary because there is the need to look into what the laws say concerning the resignation and replacement of the chairman of the party. In this case, can the party replace the chairman without going through the process of a convention? Can the party replace the chairman with somebody from a different zone or region in the event of resignation? Is the time frame to effect this change still feasible considering the tight schedule for campaigns and other crucial engagements?; and, what other arrangements can be put in place in the case of infeasibility to satisfy the legal requirements to effect the proposed change (this is very crucial in view of the uncertainty posed by the recent Federal High Court judgment nullifying the nomination of H.E. governot Isiaka Oyetola as the candidate of the APC in the last gubernatorial election in Osun State as a result of the alleged illegality of the actions taken by the then caretaker chairman of the party).

If the laws permit, Ayu can take the position of chairman of the Board of Trustees while another person from the south is elected to take his place as the chairman of the party. However, if this process of resignation and change is not supported by the law, then, the Wike’s team should also be prepared to concede and respect the status quo based on concrete plans on paper (writing) for an all-inclusive and balanced composition as soon as practicable (most probably after the elections). The sacrifice made by Atiku himself during the 1993 SDP convention in Jos should serve as a very crucial reference point to buttress the fact that the people should also make sacrifices or concessions for the overall interest of the party.

READ ALSO: I Won’t Resign, Wike, Others Were Children When We Formed PDP – Ayu

Meanwhile, the chairman as the leader and father of the party should tender an unreserved apology to all members for any unwarranted action or statements that must have been made inadvertently or intentionally before, during and after the primaries. Also, Alhaji Atiku should personally apologise to Wike and members of the committee set up to profile and recommend a vice presidential candidate (if feelers that leaked into the media that the committee actually recommended Wike but Atiku opted for H.E. Ifeanyi Okowa are anything to go by). I am of the strong opinion that, if Atiku had confided and explained the rationale for not going by the recommendation of the committee to Wike before going public with the choice of Okowa, things would not have been as bad as they currently are. Wike and his allies are now of the strong conviction that they need better assurances before they can give their commitments (in view of the failed promise of Ayu and the action taken by Atiku which are now seen as warning signals). When all these have been accomplished, it is only those that have skeleton in their cupboard or that have made up their mind to destroy the party that will refuse to shift their grounds for settlement.

Once again, it is very important to put it on record that this write-up is my humble response to the statement made by the chairman of the party, Senator Iyorchia Ayu during the flagoff of the presidential campaign in Uyo, that “Nigerians are not interested in the crisis going on in the party”. Though, I am not a card-carrying member of the PDP or any other party for that matter; but, the facts in issue of the imbroglio are very delicate and capable of snowballing into a humongous problem in the country if not handled with care. Therefore, every committed and well-meaning Nigerian will not shy away from showing concern and, that is the reason why I took it upon myself to show that we are indeed interested in the crisis.

Please, TAKE NOTICE that this review is WITHOUT PREJUDICE to anyone or group.

Raymond Oise-Oghaede writes in from Suru-lere, Lagos; and, he can be reached via


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The West And The Hypocrisy Of Democracy



Dele Jegede In Conversation With Prince Yemisi Shyllon
Prof. Toyin Falola

By Toyin Falola

Western deception has been with Africa forever:

1493: Pope Alexander VI issued a papal bull, “Inter Caetera,” proclaiming the right of Spain and Portugal to enslave Africans and own the land. They were subjects. They stole your people and your land.

1885: Africa was a Dark Continent. It required colonization to become civilized. Europe would bring change and civilize them. They stole your raw materials and truncated your self-development.

1940: When over a million Africans fought in Europe, North Africa and the Far East during the Second World War, the West convinced them they were dying for freedom and democracy. But where in Africa do they receive freedom and democracy? Indeed, Apartheid was inaugurated in 1948 in South Africa.

When will this deception come to an end? So, Gabon and Niger were democracies before the 2023 coups? You must be using the wrong dictionary to define democracy. Cameroon under the invalid Paul Biya is a democracy? You must be confusing the Mali Empire with the modern country of Cameroon. And the presidents who rule for as long as they want practising democracy?

You need a little education.

Recent developments in Africa’s political space, particularly the growing number of military takeovers, have informed fresh queries around the expressions of neo-colonialism in Africa and the commitment to liberal democracy as the ideal political model for the region. The point of reference for these queries is the ceremonial reactions from the acclaimed “champions of democracy” in the West, who waste no time issuing condemnations at every instance of “democratic failure” on the continent without any actual commitment to ensuring that power indeed lies with the people. Not only have these champions of African interests—the United States (US), Britain and France—touted democracy as the best system of political organization to achieve political stability and economic prosperity in Africa, but they have also prosecuted wars, allegedly in its defence, which cost millions of lives and destabilized entire regions. However, it is not enough to accuse our benevolent friends in the West of hypocrisy without providing compelling proof of double-dealing in delivering their duties as democratic crusaders. After all, in a democratic setting, all are innocent until proven guilty. 

As a philosophy of government, democracy has existed since the Greco-Roman times. However, its foray into Africa can be traced to the eve of independence when Britain and France introduced forms of local representation as concessions to indigenous demands for independence. Thus, from 1959, parliamentary elections and other democratic institutions started to become commonplace on the continent. But, as it would turn out, this democratic experiment, which formed part of the third (global) wave of democracy, was to be short-lived—derailed as it was by fluctuating Western interests on the continent. 

Guiding Western interest in Africa from the 1950s was the ideological war between the West (mainly the USA) and the Soviet Union. The “Cold War,” as it came to be known, was the first incident to unmask the real intentions of the West for post-colonial Africa. In their quest to emerge as the world’s sole superpower, the US and the Soviet Union, who actively strove to undermine each other’s influence by, among other things, advancing their political ideologies around the world, turned to Africa as another important frontier of conquest. While the Soviet Union armed African revolutionary movements against their Western colonial overlords and provided support to openly communist governments, Washington concluded that, to effectively check the spread of Soviet influence on the continent, it was more expedient to enthrone biddable leaders in African states than it was to woo them with any ideological arguments or economic incentives.

Anxious to ensure power was handed over to reliable politicians, Britain and France became eager participants in the US policy in Africa. Together, the US and its allies targeted venal local strongmen, preferably with military backgrounds and authoritarian tendencies, who, in collaboration with its intelligence agencies, ousted legitimate/democratic governments. Notable victims and beneficiaries of this plot included (in the former category) Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Patrice Lumumba of Congo DRC, Sylvio Olympio of Togo and (in the latter category) Idi Amin of Uganda, Mobutu Sese Seko of Congo DRC and Gnassingbé Eyadema of Togo, to mention a few. Consequently, thirty-three African countries that achieved independence between 1956-1970 became authoritarian immediately or not long after. 

Another demonstration of the complete disregard that the West has for democracy, peace/stability and human rights in Africa is its willingness to engulf the entire region in conflict so that it can achieve its “strategic interests.”  Once again, we begin from the Cold War era where, having recently come out of a highly destructive war in Europe (in 1945) and being cautious of engaging in another, the West and the Eastern Bloc turned Africa into the site of their proxy wars. In southern Africa, where the US considered both Angola and Mozambique as areas of “strategic interests,” Washington armed the 200,000 Portuguese conscripts, who went on to fight a protracted war against local nationalist revolutionaries, with imported weapons, which included defoliants and napalm. In Angola, the US, in cooperation with Apartheid South Africa, backed the National Union for Total Independence (UNITA) against the country’s (Soviet-backed) leading national liberation front, the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA). There were also similar cases in northern Africa where Sudan was funded and armed by the US against Egypt and Ethiopia, who had also pitched their tents with Moscow. These conflicts and the resultant proliferation of arms saw the loss of millions of African lives from war and famine and a general destabilization of the region. 

While the West cannot be said to have been directly involved in all the occasions of transition from democratic to authoritarian rule, in more than a few instances, the leaders of newly independent democratic/multi-party African states seized the opportunity of Western patronage to quickly switch to one-party/despotic rule. In other cases, it was the corruption, resource mismanagement, “tribalism,” patrimonialism, clientelism and imperialism perpetrated by a Western-backed ruling political class which formed the basis of military takeovers (coups). Nevertheless, in this atmosphere of quasi-democratic rule, full-fledged despotism, military rule and Apartheid—where national resources were siphoned by kleptocratic regimes and millions of Africans either became refugees or died as a result of civil wars, hunger, and human rights abuses—our western “friends” were content to look the other way if the government in place proved itself an ally of Washington.      

Perhaps the most glaring example of the West’s democratic hypocrisy in Africa was its age-long support for the highly racist and politically repressive Apartheid regime in South Africa. Like the French, who were able to cajole Washington into believing that they were fighting communist-backed insurgents in Algeria, the South African Apartheid regime, for forty years, posed as the last bastion against communists in Africa—an attitude that was able to secure a steady flow of western arms. This, alongside the West’s tacit approval, allowed for one of Africa’s most despicable shows of human debasement, carried out in the name of imperialism and racial superiority. After all, as President Ronald Regan remarked in 1981, South Africa was “essential to the free world in its production of minerals we all must have.”  

The end of the Cold War changed Western attitudes towards Africa. Without the Soviet threat, the West leaned more towards development diplomacy and foreign aid regimes as the main thrust of its foreign policy in Africa. Foreign aid to Africa, however, turned out to be a Trojan horse. Already saddled with the task of building vibrant economies whilst also harmonizing the aspirations of the different ethnic nationalities which characterized them, African countries, especially in Francophone Africa, also had to grapple with the undermining economic and political agreements they had been coerced into signing with their erstwhile colonial overlord as a condition for independence and continued patronage. To make matters worse, some African countries were, at the end of the Cold War, either fighting or had just come out of civil war. This, combined with the widespread corruption and mismanagement of national resources which characterized Africa’s tyrannical governments, put many Af5rican countries at the mercy of international monetary agencies (the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank) and their financiers whose aid they were now heavily dependent on. 

At first, these Bretton Woods institutions were content to grant loans/aid, at debilitating interest rates no less, to authoritarian leaders who used them to perpetuate themselves in power and, in return, provided the former with mineral and other economic concessions. However, without the Cold War pressures, more emphasis was placed on the liberalization and capitalist/free-market aspects of US foreign policy to guarantee return on investments. Soon enough, Structural Adjustments Programmes (SAPs) were introduced as a precondition for further loans/aid. Said adjustments, which demanded limited government intervention in the public sector, i.e., removing government subsidies in energy (fuel/gas), education and health care, brought untold hardships to already suffering populations. And as research has shown, poverty and non-tax revenue make for the ideal democratic environment. In other words, “when the government is not beholden to citizens for its funding, there is less accountability and less reason to democratize” (Tilly 1990). Instead, leaders simply use the “free” funding from natural resources (oil) and foreign loans/aid to buy enough support to remain in power. 

Judging from the various expressions of Western interests in Africa over decades, it goes without saying that the West simply pays lip service to ideologies when convenient. Although many Africans might not object to the cynical pragmatism that has always guided Western foreign policy in Africa, I dare say they will not stand for the continued lies and hypocrisy that have characterized Western reactions to African developments. Even if the above-described instances of Western hypocrisy in Africa were to be argued to be in the past, it is a living past for Africa.  

Africa, today, still has authoritarian governments in place whose political repression and human rights abuses go on unchecked by our democracy and rule of law-loving friends in the West. After being siphoned by kleptocratic governments, our commonwealth still finds its way to Western banks, where it sits and improves the local economy. Western interests continue to impoverish Africans and destabilize their regions. So, Africans are today saying to the West, its diplomats, presidents, and the other agents of its propaganda: “Your gambit in Africa is up. Our people are awakened!”   

The West has sold you a fake product called democracy. Africans, your vote is not a sign of democracy. It is no more than a deception. There is no democracy without accountability. You are just voting thieves to power. There is no democracy without transparency. You are just using your votes in support of crooks and thugs. There is no democracy without good governance. Your vote is facilitating theft. Maybe you are waiting for your turn to steal. There is no democracy without development. Your vote is moving you back to the Stone Age. Even early humans knew when to replace stones with iron during the Stone Age. Africa, you don’t have a democracy. Anyone you have not appointed cannot disappoint you! Citizens are being deceived, and they are deceiving themselves. Organize yourselves at various levels and think of alternatives to democracy or, at the minimum, how accountability and transparency will form the core of your democratic practices. Your lifetime president is not a Democrat. He is an authoritarian kleptocrat far worse than the combination of Doris Payne, Stephane Breitwieser, Simon Leviev, Veerappan, Derek Smalls, Vincenzo Peruggia, Bonnie and Clyde, Natwarlal, Carl Gugasian, Frank Abagnale, Anna Sorokin, Albert Spaggiari, Jesse James, Anthony Strangis, and Bill Mason. Do you know these names?



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Informaction: Theory Of Change And Witch Persecution In Africa



Witch Burning, Impunity And Abuses Linked to Witchcraft Beliefs In Benue State
Dr. Leo Igwe

By Leo Igwe 

A theory of change explains how activities, measures, and steps undertaken to address a problem could facilitate or help realize certain changes or outcomes. It articulates how an impact would be achieved and some progress made. In this case, the expected outcome is an end to witch-hunting in Africa. Unlike in Western countries, the persecution of supposed witches persists in the region. Witch bloodletting takes place in many parts of Africa. The persecution of people accused of witchcraft leads to horrific abuses and death. Alleged witches are attacked, tortured, lynched, imprisoned, or banished. They are subjected to jungle justice, trial by ordeal, forced disappearance, and internal displacement. Simply put, those who are accused of perpetrating occult harm are treated without mercy or compassion. Incidentally, the impression is that nothing could be done to combat or neutralize this dark and destructive phenomenon, that witch hunting is cultural to Africans. The impression is that seeking to eradicate witch-hunting in African societies is a futile effort. This notion is gravely mistaken and needs to be corrected. The Advocacy for Alleged Witches was launched in 2020 to correct these misconceptions and facilitate effective actions. It works to fill the missing link in the activism against witch persecution in the region. The AfAW is a protest initiative, and exists to challenge and dispel allegations of witchcraft.

The main goal is to end witch-hunting in Africa by 2030. This objective sounds like an ambitious goal or some pipe dream, but it can be achieved. And AfAW aims to end witch hunting based on an informactional theory of change. This theory rests on two pillars: information and action because witch hunting persists in the region due to lack of information, or misinformation, and due to lack of action, inaction, or infraction. The Advocacy for Alleged Witches uses this two-pronged approach to combat witch-hunting in Africa.

At the global level, there is a lack of information about witch-hunting in Africa. Although a lot has been written and published on witchcraft in African societies, many people in Europe and America claim do not know about raging witch hunts in the region. Part of the problem is that these publications are filled with misinformation and misinterpretation of witchcraft accusations and witch persecution in the region. Scholars have presented witchcraft accusations as benign and useful to African societies. Meanwhile these accusations are not in any way gentle or pleasant. Studies have portrayed witchcraft allegations as stabilizing and harmonizing mechanisms. They have overlooked the critical and skeptical perspective of witchcraft beliefs. Scholars have largely ignored the accused side of the story, the harmful and destructive consequences of witchcraft imputations. At the Advocacy for Alleged Witches, we work to correct the misrepresentation of witchcraft accusations in Africa. We campaign to draw attention to this imbalance in the perception of the phenomenon. But correct information is not enough. Balanced interpretation does not suffice. To combat witch persecution, information needs to be turned into action, into effective policies and interventions.

On the action side, the Advocacy for Alleged Witches takes measures to address the problem because lack of adequate information has occasioned inaction or infractions. Wrong information has resulted in apathy and indifference towards witch hunting in Africa. Many international agencies are reluctant to act; they have refused to take action or to treat the issue with the urgency it deserves. With adequate and balanced information, international organizations would take appropriate actions.

At the local level, the Advocacy for Alleged Witches works to fill the information and action gaps. Many people accuse and engage in witch hunts due to a lack of information or misinformation. Accusers act based on a lack of information about the cause of illnesses, deaths, and other misfortune. Many people persecute witches because they have incorrect information about who or what is responsible for their problems, because they are not informed about what to do and where to go, who or what to blame for their misfortunes. Many people do not know what constitutes sufficient reason and causal explanations for their problems. As part of the efforts to end witch-hunting, the AfAW highlights misinformation and disinformation about causes of misfortune, illness, death, accidents, poverty, and infertility, including the misinformation that charlatans and con artists, god men and women such as traditional priests, pastors, mallam and marabouts use to exploit poor ignorant folks. The AfAW provides evidence-based knowledge, explanation, and interpretation of misfortunes. It informs the public about the law and other existing mechanisms to address allegations of witchcraft. The AfAW sensitizes the public and public institutions, including schools, colleges, and universities. It sponsors media programs, issues press releases, makes social media posts, and publishes articles and blogs on witch-hunting in the region.

In addition, the AfAW facilitates actions and interventions by state and nonstate agencies. The post colonial African state is weak so state agencies have limited powers and presence. So the AfAW encourages institutional synergy to enhance efficiency and effectiveness. The AfAW petitions the police, the courts, and state human rights institutions. It  pressures them to act, to collaborate and take appropriate measures to penalize witch-hunting activities in the region. With an informactional approach, witch hunting in Africa would slowly decrease and diminish. Witch persecution would be a thing of the past within a decade.
Dr.Igwe directs the Advocacy for Alleged Witches which aims to end witch hunting in Africa by 2030.

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A – Z Of Ibadan Achievements



Dele Jegede In Conversation With Prince Yemisi Shyllon
Prof. Toyin Falola

By Toyin Falola

I am glad to accept the invitation of the Ibadan Descendant Union, the Dallas Branch, celebrating its 25th anniversary on September 23rd, 2023. As the Keynote Speaker, my topic was not imposed on me. In the spirit of the occasion and speaking to city fellows, I know I must be in haste before the amala becomes cold. Approaching 71, my words keep coming, far more than at 41. As the words continue to pour, let me employ them to praise the greatness of Ibadan, which I once eulogized in a piece, “Ibadan: My City of Fame”.

A story of political cunning, martial strength, and intellectual passion unfolds in Ibadan’s rich and fertile fields, like the brilliant hues of a tapestry stitched with strands of heritage, bravery, and ingenuity. As we travel through the history of Ibadan, a city that stands as a beacon of human resilience and ingenuity, we discover stories of remarkable individuals who have risen to great heights through courage and community solidarity, shaping a society that not only honoured its past but eagerly looks forward to a bright future.

We begin this voyage by traversing Ibadan’s dynamic political and chieftaincy terrain, where the pursuit for honour paints the backdrop of a society steeped in martial culture. This is a city that pulsates with the heartbeat of its people, continuously growing and remaking itself via a kaleidoscope of power dynamics and civic turmoil. Individuals ascending to chieftaincy titles in this dynamic metropolis are more than just leaders; they manifest a tradition steeped in heroism, endurance, and community cooperation. When we delve further, we discover that the quest for honour is more than just a race for prestige. It is a vibrant celebration of the rich and diverse traditions that constitute the foundation of Ibadan’s distinct identity. Civil disturbances are considered possibilities for societal reform in this setting, fostering governance that shapes a robust and adaptive civic identity. As we search through Ibadan’s historical documents, we discover a city that stands as a tribute to its citizens’ tenacious energy and inventiveness, constantly weaving its past and values into the intricate fabric of its distinct character.

The vivid tapestry of Ibadan’s tale continues into the arena of military power, where victory echoes reverberate through time, influencing the communal rituals and martial practices that have defined the city’s vast past. The revered streets of Ibadan echo the attitude of solidarity and fearlessness that characterized ancient warriors. A closer examination reveals leaders who inspired and galvanized armies with weapons and words that moved the soul, cultivating a cultural milieu in which military achievement symbolized civic pride and camaraderie. Leaders like Balogun Ogboriefon evolved to personify the deeply ingrained belief system centred on togetherness and fearlessness. These charismatic figures led their societies through transforming experiences that defined civic values and fostered a collective sense of cohesion and direction. As a result, civil unrest in Ibadan should be viewed as a potent catalyst for political development and advancement, forming a dynamic and resilient civic identity that matches the lively traits of urban cultures seen in ancient city-states.

As the story progresses, it becomes clear that military conflicts that once echoed through the city’s streets have now become an integral component of a fascinating narrative that acts as both an educational tool and a source of inspiration for its residents. The merging of past and present delivers a colourful portrayal of historical information through this lens, feeding civic culture with a potent blend of inspiration and advice. Continuing from the complex tapestry that underpins Ibadan’s historical landscape, we now focus on the intellectual areas that distinguish this magnificent city. The hum of intellectual debate, the vigorous interchange of ideas that has been a trademark of this urban sanctuary for generations, can be heard throughout Ibadan’s bustling streets and peaceful corners. The scholarly pursuit, profoundly embedded in the city’s mentality, acts as a beacon, attracting minds from all backgrounds and promoting a culture of intellectual energy and innovation.

The intellectual enthusiasm is not limited to the sacred halls of learning; it permeates every aspect of Ibadan culture. Streets are transformed into open forums, where wisdom and insight are traded with the same zeal as goods in a bustling market. Every person, it appears, contributes to a swirling vortex of information and creativity, from the little child reciting folklore learnt at a grandparent’s knee to the seasoned academic scribbling theories in scholarly publications. This ongoing engagement with learning with intellectual inquiry imbues the city with an enlightening atmosphere that permeates every nook and cranny. This intellectual curiosity, however, is not a new feature; rather, it is deeply established in Ibadan’s history. The city has long been a study centre, where traditions and customs have been recorded, preserved, and studied. A location where the quest for knowledge, for unravelling the complexities of human existence, has been a constant force driving people to seek wisdom in the teachings of the past and the discoveries of the present.

And, as if responding to the ancients’ pleas, Ibadan’s modern academic institutions stand as mighty strongholds of knowledge, where the quest for understanding crosses borders and cultural barriers. The University of Ibadan, a towering educational institution, is a light of scholarship, attracting minds worldwide. A new generation takes up the mantle of scholarly endeavour here, amid the halls resonating with the echoes of intellectual giants, ready to carve out their place in the unending narrative of human discovery and understanding. This old institution’s convoluted passageways are a combination of tradition and modernity. A synthesis of many fields of study, where rich lore from the past meets innovative findings from the present, generating an environment that fosters critical thinking and innovation. The intellectual traditions that have characterised the city’s history are given new life by introducing new views and cutting-edge research approaches. This harmonic fusion of old and modern, tradition and innovation, creates a fertile foundation for ideas to take root and develop, contributing to a lively intellectual ecosystem constantly reshaping Ibadan’s societal landscape. The spread of knowledge extends beyond academic circles and into the streets, producing a culture that values intellectual involvement and scholarly discourse.

In the green gardens and lively courtyards of Ibadan’s educational institutions, ideas that have the potential to revolutionize society, question the existing status quo and drive growth are born. Here, in the heart of Ibadan, a new generation emerges, armed with the instruments of knowledge and the spirit of inquiry, ready to face the difficulties of the modern world to contribute to a story that transcends millennia, a story that is constantly being written with each passing instant. There blossoms a dazzling tale of expansion and renaissance within the heartbeat of booming urbanity, an anthology that knits past and present into a vivid tapestry of innovation and cultural engagement. The bustling city of Ibadan awakens to embrace a future stitched with golden threads of aspiration and drive as the sun rises, filling the sky with the hues of a new day.

As we continue our examination of this extraordinary city, we cannot ignore the significance of cultural collaboration in forming its modern landscape. Ibadan’s rhythmic pulse is an outstanding symphony, synthesizing diverse cultures and traditions that have found a home within its warm embrace. These intertwined storylines have generated a rich and diverse cultural tapestry and a dynamic and resilient community united in its pursuit of growth and innovation.

    A live testament to the city’s global nature can be found in the bustling markets, where an orchestra of dialects fills the air. Trade and commerce transcend transactional boundaries here, morphing into a dynamic cultural exchange dance. An ever-changing ballet in which things, tales, and traditions weave a rich narrative that vibrates with the harmonious melodies of cooperation and mutual respect. As one travels through the city’s busy streets, it is clear that the feeling of community flourishes here. The streets, bustling with the energy of a people unified in purpose and vision, represent Ibadan’s unwavering spirit. This is a city where neighbourliness and a profound feeling of belonging form relationships that transcend generational boundaries, where the wisdom of the elders feeds the seeds of the future, nurturing a society ready to play a crucial role in the world arena.

Again, the story does not finish here; rather, the narrative is ever-changing, sculpted by the hands that construct, nurture, and invent. The pulse of progress is tangible, sparking a rebirth that sees the city reach previously unimaginable heights. Ibadan is on the verge of a new era, ready to seize chances that promise progress and wealth. The city’s edifices, testaments to human ingenuity and resilience, rise to the sky, representing the lofty goals of a people eager to carve their place in history. The developments we see now are a testament to the numerous hands who have worked tirelessly to mould Ibadan’s trajectory, a path distinguished by tenacity, ingenuity, and a relentless quest for greatness. This booming innovation cluster is where the past meets the future, where tradition and modernity dance in unison, giving rise to a beacon of hope and progress on the African continent. The brilliance of human collaboration illuminates Ibadan’s path, a tribute to the potential within a society united in purpose and vision. 

As the sun sets and the sky turns gold and scarlet, Ibadan retreats into a tranquil embrace, a sanctuary where dreams are nurtured and visions are born. Ibadan whispers tales of a great past and alludes to a future filled with limitless potential under the twinkling canopy of stars. A future in which the city takes its rightful place in the international arena, a beacon of growth and creativity, a tribute to the perseverance of human endeavour. 

As we stand on the verge of a new day, the lively city of Ibadan asks us to join it on its journey, distinguished by growth, expansion, and a firm confidence in the limitless potential of human ingenuity and cultural engagement. A voyage that invites us to see the unfolding story of a city that epitomizes the throbbing rhythm of progress, a story that promises to resound with the harmonic melodies of growth and prosperity for future generations. As the story progresses, Ibadan becomes a living witness to the powerful ability of human ingenuity and cultural exchange, a vibrant tableau of a city on the move, eager to embrace a future full of promise and opportunity. As this piece on our exploration of this vibrant urban tapestry concludes, we are left with a vision of a city reborn, a city ready to forge its path into a future that gleams with the promise of progress, prosperity, and limitless possibilities, ever-ready to assume its rightful place on the global stage. Finally, with its rich history, intellectual prowess, and dynamic cultural mosaic, Ibadan invites us all to be a part of its ongoing tale, a story that promises to captivate, inspire, and serve as a beacon of hope and progress in our ever-changing world. 

Let us all witness Ibadan’s developing story, a city poised to stun the globe with its brightness, resilience, and unshakable spirit of innovation and progress. IDU, congratulations!


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