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Richard Joseph On Governance In Africa



Dele Jegede In Conversation With Prince Yemisi Shyllon



Conversation With Professor Richard Joseph (3)

 Richard Joseph On Governance In Africa

Richard Joseph


Toyin Falola

Africa is not moving forward fast enough, at least in terms of the progress we can associate with other continents. Technological breakthrough is becoming very difficult to achieve as the continent continues some entrenched practices. Meanwhile, the revolution in technology is pivotal for economic transformation, where wealth distribution plays an important role in people’s lives. Africa’s failure to advance in these new technologies or aspects of global development has undermined the continent’s transformative capabilities and attracted more woes to the people than can logically be imagined. Technological limitations have made Africa a primary victim of all manner of dangers that are either naturally enhanced or artificially orchestrated. From economy to health, education to politics, the suffocating miasma of technological weakness contributes to the deterioration.

To understand the gravity of the importance of technology to human advancement in recent history, we need to identify areas of human engagement and consider how the lack of technological transformation is perennially causing the agony of underdevelopment for the African people. In politics, where decisions that influence people’s quality of life are made, Africa’s refusal to embrace contemporary technological revolution or provoke a suitable one has continued to cause the system to hibernate, with a scary potential to crash when preventive measures are not immediately taken. For example, the decision to choose a leader who will truly represent the people’s interests is usually marred by the fact that some people do not even understand how the Internet works.

READ ALSO: Richard A. Joseph: One Of A Kind And The Rarest Breed Of Political Scientists

Richard Joseph speaks to the need for leadership. Elections are conducted with absolute disregard for the opinions of the majority. Good governance, which visionary individuals would have spearheaded, is sabotaged by the inability or reluctance to decide on the best candidate. Development at the level of governance is impeded, apparently because some groups are eternally committed to their selfish ambitions and want to use the state to pursue their egotistical agenda.

But we need a development-oriented mindset. We cannot ignore agriculture and the rural areas. Farming is an old business with relevance because it remains a common thing on which people depend. However, farming, as conceived in the past centuries, is quite different from how it is today. During the years of yore, biological capability determined human productivity in farming. In other words, the number of individuals concentrated on farming determined the quantity of production and the economic outcome of the engagement. But such a system is not suited to contemporary times. Technology is needed to be a successful and impactful farmer. Technological instruments are used to embark on massive land cultivation, eventually determining the size of outcomes. This means that the investment in technology is limited, caused by bad leadership and governance system that do not care much about the progress of their nations.

It is disheartening that a country like Nigeria cannot build good public hospitals for its citizens. Medical tourism to foreign countries depletes the foreign reserves of many African countries. Sadly, there is hardly any country in Africa whose most-exalted political figures do not take their rounds in patronizing medical institutions in other continents. The conscious investment in healthcare that these foreign nations make by embracing technology is not something African countries are doing. Governance in Africa has become a conduit for personal aggrandizement; thus, many African countries do not invest heavily in health care.

The above exposition is necessary to understand that the stagnation of governance in Africa is deepened by the refusal to produce ideas or make use of the better ones. Still, Richard Joseph sees greatness in Africa. Why or how did the past Africans achieve what they did? If there is any contention about their achievements, let us immediately measure the human development strategy. Many African leaders of the past understood what it meant to be virtuous, and the moral obligation to extend that virtue to others was collectively embraced. Leadership was seen as an opportunity to serve, and in situations where the results were not forthcoming, the society believed that something was not right with the governance system. History documents some African kings who committed suicide because their leadership did not bring the desired outcomes to their people.

Governance in Africa is corrosive because the continent seems to lack value-adding people in government who can envision an idea and then resolve to achieve it. There is the looting of the public resources without any iota of shame, and massive disruptions of political systems for personal reasons without any modicum of decency. Even when the resources for technological discoveries were almost found on the continent, the recent generation of Africans has not been able to do many tangibles with it, reinforcing that, in the current trajectory of events, something is wrong with those who govern us.

Meanwhile, with the right set of people in governance, Africa will leap forward. Humanitarian philosophy, which allows people to build strong moral characters, has been in existence for thousands of years, and we cannot in good conscience ascribe that to recent African leaders. Leadership is needed, argued Richard Joseph: leaders who can translate visions to results.

READ ALSO: Nigeria And The Multiplication Of Chaos

Misgovernance has continued, and the bad results are everywhere to see. Where systems exist, they are heavily manipulated by the same people, thus promoting mediocrity above vision. Misgovernance causes those elected to protect the people to spend the monies allocated for that purpose on material things and for their own families and cronies. Therefore, they cover their leadership or democratic emptiness with cosmetic programs and projects to mislead their unassuming followers. The present African leaders are mortgaging the continent’s future, and they do not even attract the people’s wrath for it. According to Professor Richard Joseph, while governance is fundamental to enhancing generational success for the people, they also have instructive roles to play. Over the years, African leaders have repeatedly demonstrated that they are staunch enemies of due process and purposeful leadership, and challenging them would involve catching them in the act and imposing the maximum punishment.

The key to accessing transformative development in every sphere of human endeavor is now in the hands of the generation whose quality of life has been infested with problems. They face the ugly situations caused by the carelessness, visionlessness, and laziness of the preceding generations who failed to plant seeds when the ecological conditions were fertile. They, however, do not need to succumb to fate; otherwise, the problem would be more compounded for the coming generations, and that would be imaginatively disastrous. They wield power, and they have the energy. They are expected to ask questions because without good governance in place, they cannot have the opportunity to challenge their contemporaries in other parts of the world. After all, they have seen the wide difference between having visionary individuals in governance and coping with the bad ones. They can see this because they have a wide network of friends across different parts of the world from whom they gather information about the places where they are, and this means that they must begin to ask important questions and hold many of their politicians accountable. They need to ask them what the plan is so that they can rescue a future for their children and children’s children.

This is important because all concerned individuals require participation that does not discriminate against race, gender, ethnicity, or religious views, as well as geographical and philosophical boundaries. People should make a deliberate demand so that all these would be sequentially done. The youths must fight, not by destructing monuments or resorting to physical violence, but by democratically engaging those in positions of power so that they can be recruited to the wagon and therefore make significant contributions that will salvage their future from their precarious situation. Also, women must rise up because their involvement in governance is crucial to stability and development. When they are not included, a critical aspect of the social resources is not engaged, which might be potentially dangerous for the country. There is a need to invest in education for those who will eventually be tasked to translate their knowledge into concrete results.

Additionally, more women need to be involved in politics and positions of authority. The exclusion is glaring, with negative outcomes. There is an increasing conversation on women’s roles, provided they are allowed to be represented in politics. Women constitute a larger proportion of the population. According to Professor Joseph, power is something you wrestle for and win, even when the odds are stacked against you. It would be inappropriate to believe that the people who have benefited from a dysfunctional system would suddenly let go of their influence.

While we have emphasized the purpose of inclusion and reiterated why youths must rise and demand fundamental changes, it would be unfair to say they have not made efforts. In reality, they attempt various measures to seek changes since they understand the strong connections between their future and the governance system. Youths in Cameroon, Ethiopia, Senegal, Nigeria, and other countries have organized and protested, advocating for fundamental changes and agitating for inclusion. Cases of suppression are equally many.

Now it gets cockier, especially with the resulting development from this ugly condition. The youths are made of different resolves, and only a few of them have the thick skin to withstand all manner of maltreatment and misgovernance. Although at the same time, not all of them have the resources to make the moves that would transform their lives. However, it cannot be denied that they are dissatisfied, and their annoyance and anger are being forced into a jar that can potentially explode at any time. When the government clamps down on them, many of them seek opportunities in other countries, resulting in out-migration to other continents, especially to Europe and the United States. While cross-border movements and migration are as old as humanity, there is no contention that sporadic movements of people over a particular period away from their homes to areas where they potentially would face backlogs of racial and political extradition is an ominous signal. More than it can be explained, it signals that people are perhaps escaping from a particular condition.

This questions the political philosophy in use in Africa, and this is where it is closely linked to governance, as earlier identified. There are also arguments and opinions that Africa’s democratic inheritance does not work well, and this has made different stakeholders, including academics, begin to call for a new system of thinking that can immediately produce the results Africa needs. While many of the discussions have always resulted in the outright rejection of military alternatives, owing to their totalitarian and high-handed possibilities, there is also the campaign for something more suitable that would help the continent in the enforcement of laws and order so that normalcy would return to the continent. This is important in order to attract developers and development to the continent. Investors run away when there is no security or safety for them.

Drastic measures are urgently needed in Africa, no matter how one looks at things. The ones brimming with ideas and energies are frustrated by the strategy of migration, and those who cannot leave are bludgeoned to silence. According to Professor Richard Joseph, one of the solutions to the problems is to provide education of the sort that promotes passion, vision and critical thinking. It appears that, while those at the helm of affairs are educated, it is not enough to reflect on the future that would not include them. They are educated only to the level that they regurgitate ideas, regardless of how irreconcilable they are when they are in the position of leadership. This would not be an accurate definition of education that our guest had in mind. Military personnel also need a form of education. Leaders should receive impactful education and provide security to the state, including the protection of all human lives within the boundaries of their countries. They must understand the complexities of human relationships and the expectations of the people they govern.

This is the second report on the interview with Professor Richard Joseph on March 27, 2022. His views have traveled wide, reported in several newspapers. For the transcript, see YouTube; Facebook

Falola is a Nigerian historian and professor of African Studies. He is currently the Jacob and Frances Sanger Mossiker Chair in the Humanities at the University of Texas at Austin.


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Toyin Falola Interviews Holds Talks With Samia, Daughter Of Kwame Nkrumah



Samia Yaba Nkrumah

The Toyin Falola Interviews is set to hold a conversation with the renowned Pan-Africanist and former Convention People’s Party chairperson, Samia Yaba Nkrumah.

Sunday, June 25, 2023
4:00 PM Ghana
5:00 PM Nigeria
11:00 AM Austin CST

Register and Watch:

Samia Nkrumah was born on June 23, 1960, in Ghana to Kwame Nkrumah, the first President of the Republic of Ghana and Africa’s most decorated Pan-Africanist, and Fathia Nkrumah, an Egyptian. The aftermath of the 1966 military coup that overthrew Kwame Nkrumah saw her immediate family divided between Guinea and Egypt, where she had her elementary education. At the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) at the University of London, she obtained a Bachelor of Arabic Studies in 1991 and a master’s degree in Comparative Politics of Contemporary Middle East at SOAS in 1993. In 2008, Samia Nkrumah entered Ghanaian politics and served as the Member of Parliament for the Jomoro Constituency of the Western Region of Ghana between 2009 and 2012. In her quest to revive her father’s political party, Samia Nkrumah became the National Chairperson of the Convention People’s Party between 2011 and 2015. Currently, Samia Nkrumah is the founder and president of the Kwame Nkrumah Pan-African Centre, a non-profit organization committed to promoting the vision and ideas of Kwame Nkrumah.

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Professor Paul Lovejoy At 80  – Part 2: Peculiar Substances!



Dele Jegede In Conversation With Prince Yemisi Shyllon
Prof. Toyin Falola

By Toyin Falola

 Paul Lovejoy has approached African history by studying commodities: kola nuts, salt, tobacco, and cowries, among others. My dialogue with him will reveal the crucial importance of these objects that interface with such issues as trade, trade routes, trading colonies, and short- and long-distance commerce. When you cumulate his studies on these objects—peculiar products—you can understand why no scholar compares with him in his enduring contributions to African Economic History. As objects connect with our desires and habits, Lovejoy becomes a pre-eminent social historian. He followed the trans-Saharan trade routes from one end to the other, diverted to the Sudan, to the Swahili city-states and crossed the Indian Ocean to Gujarat. Is a Zaki allowed to drink? If so, we must add the study of alcohol to the items of trade and habits.

Critical attention that Lovejoy accorded to the exploration, examination and interrogation of slavery would almost make one assume that outside of that intellectual discourse, he barely picks other interests. This is not so. His available contributions to other related but different tropes of knowledge signal that, like all other prolific scholars, he has made an incredible addition to numerous areas of knowledge. One may not have the idea that Lovejoy dedicated much of his intellectual energy to studying objects and commodities. 

In the spirit of fairness, the common attitude to recognizing objects is harsh, taken for granted, based on the misleading assumption that we need not study them. Why natron, why bitter kola? Meanwhile, that orientation towards all these objects and commodities is ill-motivated and misinformed, given the magnitude of ideas that the works of Lovejoy have opened our minds to. The meeting point between people and objects is understanding the cultural ideologies of groups of people. In essence, all human activities are somewhat connected.

Professor Paul Lovejoy

Paul Lovejoy, alongside some other scholars, undertakes the responsibility to understand some aspects of human cultures that are considered good and bad, respectively, concerning how they use them to drive or advance their civilization forward, beyond the imagination of anyone. They look into drugs in human society, their consumption and cultural attitude to their proliferation. Drugs have different levels that they operate within the human body. That they have superficial effects in some cultures or people and have deeper psychological outcomes on others reveals how some groups have decided to immerse themselves in the habit for certain reasons. In Consuming Habits: Drugs in History and Anthropology, the tripod of Lovejoy, Sherratt and Goodman perform anthropological operations on some cultures to bring to the fore the cultural reasons for the consumption of some hard drugs ranging from opium, cocaine, coffee, tobacco, kola, and betelnut among other substances. One thing they reveal is that these consuming habits help  to characterize people and define how they understand drugs from time to time. Drugs are objects, but they are consumable ones with definite results on the human psychological domain and, in some cases, their socioeconomic conditions eventually. 

The central message of their examination in Consuming Habits is that behind the success of countries in their endeavors is an untold story of their deepened involvement in the patronage of some substances as they employ them to perform engagements that dramatically affect the human world. Perhaps, the knowledge that the consumption of drugs has increased crimes and encouraged morally condemnable engagements, the world, through policies, has emphatically opposed the patronage of these substances. The irony of this moral quandary is that hard substances patronage is increasing daily in many countries. This raises important questions about the seriousness of combating consumers of hard substances and their very intentions about others they have successfully de-marketed. The endgame is that when they label some items “legal” or “illegal,” they have disallowed scholars from understanding the cultural context of their patronage and the reason for their continued appropriation. Lovejoy has helped us understand the overlapping beauty of culture and moral principles and how the desire to separate them has always generated unimaginable results with negative consequences. To that extent, they let us understand why humans keep using and abusing these substances. 

In Salt of the Desert Sun: A History of Salt Production and Trade in Central Sudan, Lovejoy uses his scholarly work to understudy production and exchange systems. Before then and after, it has often become the subject that pre-capitalist African cultures were unaware of market forces, a point that Tony Hopkins also demolished in An Economic History of West Africa. Both Lovejoy and Hopkins did not tie the idea of a subsistence economy to the template of racial ideology that drove it. In that ideological template, Africans were unfit to talk about advancement in ways we have observed in Asia, Europe and the Americas. The foundation of that assumption was faulty, given that it was recorded that salt, as an object, was sufficiently distributed across different areas in the Sudan in an advanced economy. Lovejoy saw increased salt production as a testament to the ability to produce mass commodities that they used for various purposes.   

Of course, the hallmark of the economic success of the period was the ability to sustain such a high level of performance to meet the demands of people in different places, especially in contiguous areas. Production quantity would be affected because the major means of conveyance and transportation were animals (camels and, in some cases, horses). However, the salt trade promoted interstate economic affairs of the time. 

Lovejoy opened our minds to equally significant information usually masked in popular narratives. More than the distribution of salt in Western, Central and Eastern Sudan, there was an extensive exchange of cultural ideologies. The more economic engagement they had, the deeper they penetrated the culture of one another through intermarriages, migrations and resettlements. Therefore, these aspects of history reveal the complex nature of local and international politics, as it hinges on impressive economic transactions. The interlink of economy and culture is constantly strengthened by the fact that one would have to absorb the ideas and values of others, using whatever means, before taking advantage of economic strength and activities. 

Commodities, as Lovejoy analyzed, aided the transfer of cultures. He mentioned, for instance, how the Wangara became initiators of economic ideas in the old Songhai empire during the 15th and 16th centuries. The Wangara became exceptional in their economic investments by adding commodities and new products such as kola nuts, and they became actively involved in the spread of the Songhai monetary system based on cowries and gold. Meanwhile, they also produced quality textiles spread across the vast areas of the Hausa territory and Borno. In other words, the vast involvement in the sale of these commodities became the reason for their continued economic growth and what brought them to the limelight in the period, thereby becoming strong reasons for the unity of cultures. Objects facilitated the empowerment of the Wangara, transforming cultural and political institutions. In essence, the onus of Lovejoy’s argument is that there were strong economic institutions in the period constructed on the forms of substances they produced and how they managed to sustain and establish an economic system. 

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Digging Deep: Ayisha Osori On Nigeria’s 2023 Elections



Dele Jegede In Conversation With Prince Yemisi Shyllon
Prof. Toyin Falola

By Toyin Falola

Presently, there is heightened tension in some parts of Nigeria. In some other parts, there is assurance and calm anticipation. The former is the case with Nigerians who believe — no matter how little — that the Election Tribunal will shake up the announced results of the presidential election. In the latter camp are Nigerians who have peace of mind and confidence that the Tribunal will — whether due to the legitimacy of the Tinubu-Shettima ticket’s win or the expectation that it will be business as usual with the Nigerian Judiciary — uphold the results of the election as announced by INEC.

On either end of this divide are Nigerians whose expectations from the Tribunal reflect their choices during the election, giving credence yet again to how personal choices influence our expectations, perceptions, and interpretation of results. “Let the law run its course.” Yet, those in the Atiku-Okowa camp expect that the law will reverse the election results and declare their candidate as the rightful winner. In the same vein, the Obi-Datti camp believes that justice would only have prevailed when their candidate and his running mate are declared as the rightful winner of the elections. This proves that in a democratic system, there will always be aggrieved people.

Recent elections in the country — starting from the Osun gubernatorial election that preceded the overall national elections in 2023 — have witnessed several vote cancellations. Ayisha Osori drew participants’ attention to this particular concern at the last edition of the Toyin Falola Interviews. Results cancellation has successfully registered as an avenue for manipulating election results, buying time for anointed candidates, and making candidates not so sure of winning the election eventually emerge as winners. It played out in the Adamawa and Kebbi states — where 20 of the 21 local government areas in Kebbi State had cancelled votes, all totaling about 90,000 cancelled votes. There is, therefore, the need to understand what these cancelled votes are, what they mean exactly, and how they have continually served as machinery in the hands of election manipulators. We must also ask ourselves: Why does the election-organizing body cancel votes to the tune of hundreds and tens of thousands in each state? Why do we have so many cancelled votes? 

Vote cancellation often leads to supplementary elections in the affected local government areas. What these supplementary elections mean is that they help aspirants strategize how to gain vote share in the affected areas. It is an avenue to go out and have a do-or-die fight-to-the-finish run. Therefore, it is always in favour of the candidate who was not leading — most likely the one in the second position — during the live counting of election results, as supplementary elections are an avenue to close up the gap and eventually win. 

There is a need to explore the lacunae in the Electoral Act, which has supported widespread vote cancellation, especially the empowerment of electoral officers to cancel election results in a polling unit. Although this empowerment by the Electoral Act is to help mitigate rampant instances of over-voting, it is not worded in a way to help arrive at optimal outcomes, as it leaves vote cancellation at the discretion of each electoral officer — so much so that even an instance of over-voting caused by just one vote is an acceptable condition for vote cancellation.

The ability of just one vote to determine the outcomes of every other vote cast at a particular polling unit on a given election day makes the Electoral Act porous, as the subjectivity of the electoral officers can be leveraged by power-hungry political parties to spur vote cancellation in their opponents’ stronghold, thereby buying themselves more time to deploy more machinery for electoral malpractices — whether it be more thugs, complicit law-enforcement officers, more funding for vote-buying, or any other form of result-manipulating machinery.

Given the sheer amount of power the Electoral Act grants to the INEC body and its officers, it is pertinent that electoral officers, resident electoral commissioners, and returning officers are people of high moral standing that are largely insulated against corruption, bias, and bribery. However, this is rarely the case in Nigeria. The quality of the people who hold these positions — being the ones that control the fairness or otherwise of the electoral body — is what Ayisha Osori finds highly questionable and which we all, as concerned Nigerians, should also find questionable.

Electoral officers, resident commissioners, and returning officers must be independent and non-partisan. However, the reverse is the case in most instances in Nigeria. Over and over again, there have been filmed instances where electoral officers and returning officers showed bias and were partisan outright in discharging their duties. We have also witnessed cases where card-carrying members of political parties end up in these electoral positions. Ayisha Osori believes that Nigeria’s electoral problems will never be resolved if we do not arrive at that point where we thoroughly screen members of the electoral body to check their antecedents, affiliations, political leanings, friends, and associates and ensure that they are as non-partisan as expected. We should hold returning officers, electoral officers, and resident electoral commissioners to a similarly rigorous standard and routine by which we hold our judges.

However, the question remains: even if we were to successfully get enough Nigerians that fit the moral and non-partisan characteristics required for the positions of returning officers and resident electoral commissioners, can we get as many Nigerians to function as electoral officers and presiding officers across all polling units? Knowing the peculiarity of Nigeria as a corrupt country, it is difficult to ascertain the feasibility of a sustainable selection of high-quality and skilled people for the important roles of electoral officers, resident electoral commissioners, and returning officers.

This need stems from the fact that irregularities in the Nigerian electoral process have — from time immemorial — always been through the collaborative efforts of stakeholders in the elections (political parties, electoral officers, resident electoral commissioners, and law enforcement agencies, among others). Take the debacle and shenanigans of the Adamawa gubernatorial election, for instance. The announcements of fake election results were fully backed by the state’s police commissioner and the Department of State Security, and one of these announcements was made by the Resident Electoral Commissioner for Adamawa State. This said, the announcement was made without the breakdown of results or any proof — all the REC had to declare the APC candidate as the election winner. But for the intervention of the national body of INEC, the announcement would have held water, leaving the eventual true winner Ahmadu Finitri to challenge the election results through the rigorous and sometimes unrewarding path of election tribunals and courts of justice.

Therefore, it is insufficient to call for adjustments to the Electoral Act or increased funding for Nigerian elections. The more compelling questions need to be asked, there has to be a full mapping out of the root problems of the Nigerian electoral system and process, and there is also the need to combat these problems collaboratively, the same way stakeholders have been collaborating to cause irregularities or engage in electoral malpractices.

If anything, one of Nigeria’s biggest problems is that corruption and crime are enticing and promising in the country — enticing because Nigeria is a largely poor country where one’s engagement in crime or corruption could be their easy pass to a future of generational wealth, and promising because the consequences of corruption in Nigeria are ridiculously low, even if the perpetrators are accosted. 

Since crime pays off and being a criminal is not dangerous, there is less motivation to desist from criminal or illegal acts in the country. To fully combat electoral malpractices, engaging in electoral crime has to be made unenticing, and the easiest way to make it unenticing to other Nigerians is to ensure that perpetrators of any form of electoral crime are severely and appropriately punished. 

When some are made scapegoats, and there is an active and heightened search for electoral offenders, the people would understand that there is no more laxity or laissez-faire to electoral processes in the country. Anything short of this would mean that our elections would continue to be as they have always been — which would, in turn, give some people the audacity to claim that some others can never emerge as the winner because they do not have the structure to win, of which structure here is nothing but the structure of electoral manipulation.

Another point to ponder from Ayisha Osori’s commentaries on the 2023 elections is the possibility of us all burrowing down an endless rabbit hole if we solely banked on the results from the elections — especially the presidential election — as our point of reference for claiming that the 2023 elections were free, fair, and credible. According to her, the competitiveness in the presidential results does not automatically translate to a strengthened democracy. In her words, “…there is a thing like competitive authoritarianism. You can have competitive results without the country being more democratic.” Osori believes that solely focusing on the results as a way of proving the credibility of the 2023 elections is a distraction from the other pockets of issues aggregated by agitators in their claim that the elections were neither free, fair, nor credible.

If competitive authoritarianism or any of its variants was truly the case in the 2023 elections — that is, if the results are rather a subtle way of rigging to evade detection or make it difficult to prove irregularity — then the perpetrators would have successfully set Nigeria back by many years. This is because while we would have gone back to something akin to the crude years of massive and widespread electoral malpractice, the subtlety in the perpetrators’ actions would make it much more difficult to prove, and to be difficult to prove is equivalent to it being difficult to identify. Difficulty in identifying the problems and their characteristics means there will be a corresponding difficulty in battling the problem. And there, thus, the puzzle of the Nigerian 2023 elections lies.

In the coming years, Nigerians and their newly elected leaders will not only need to drag the country out of the mire of economic calamity and insecurity but will also need to answer fundamental questions that will shape the approach to elections and electoral processes and choices in the country — some of these questions are what Ayisha Osori asked and commented on during the discourse.

 This is the final part of my reflections on the Panel Discussion on Nigeria’s 2023 elections by Ayisha Osori, Jibrin Ibrahim, Cynthia Mbamalu, and Chido Onumah. The session, which has received millions of views across different platforms, discussed the various aspects of the elections. My views  are not necessarily those of the four panelists. For the transcripts, see:




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