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Rewriting The Fate Of Public Schools In Nigeria: Old Students Associations To The Rescue



2023, Ideology And Issue-based Politics: Where Did We Miss It?

Tunji Olaopa

Let me begin this statement by deeply appreciating Dr Kunle Ogunmola, a past president of OBHS-NOSA, who eminently deserves to be the guest speaker at this maiden Distinguished Olivetian
Lecture Series (DOLS). He is my egbon, and I pay homage to his stature and his wisdom, part of which we will drink from today. Like so many others, Dr Ogunmola is a role model to those of us
who were younger than he is and who were a level lower than he was at Olivet Heights. He was especially so to those of us from the Oyo-Afijio axis. He remains a consummate achiever not only
for his many performance strides in the public service, but, equally, for his many development
initiatives and community services.

Having served as the resident electoral commissioner in Lagos for close to a decade as well as a
national electoral commissioner for two terms, Dr Ogunmola is qualified to address the topic of this lecture. And this is fundamental at this period when Nigeria approaches another period of
democratic succession. The electoral dynamics of the Nigerian state, like the currently problematic electoral bill, have a lot to say about the future of democratic consolidation in Nigeria. And I am certain Dr Ogunmola will have some significant insights for us to chew on. We just have to listen, learn and engage him to the fullest.

In my earlier musing about my alma mater, titled “Olivet Heights and Wale Okediran: Rewriting the Fate of Public Schools in Nigeria,” I had challenged the Wale Okediran-led Olivet Baptist High School National Old Student Association (OBHS-NOSA) on the herculean task before it. Apart from the critical commitment to raising the bar of the school that gave the OBHS-NOSA its most
immediate responsibility, I argued that OBHS-NOSA has another crucial responsibility: being at the forefront of an advocacy campaign that will focus attention on the state of public schools in
Nigeria. I noted specifically that “We can no longer continue with a piecemeal approach to individual development in Nigeria, from individual Nigerians to individual public schools. We
need a better approach. And the starting point is to achieve consciousness building across the nation.”

And this challenge became urgent within the context of the increasing rot that has almost brought the public schools and the entire education sector in Nigeria on its knees. From the primary to the
tertiary levels, the story of gloom remains the same. We are building an army of human capital that are not sufficiently set to transform Nigeria’s infrastructural deficit.

READ ALSO: Olivet Heights And Wale Okediran: Rewriting The Fate Of Public Schools In Nigeria

The second reason for the significance of the challenge derives from the need to throw open the task of rescuing the education sector to all willing stakeholders in a collective drive to salvage Nigeria from the grip of underdevelopment. Nigeria’s pubic schools have truly lost their glories. These are the same schools that have produced the cream of nationalists, poets, scholars, professionals and managers who have all impacted every facet of Nigeria’s national life. Now the narratives have changed.

Resuscitating the education sector in Nigeria requires a framework of creative innovation that
supersedes the attention often given to the urgent need to increase budgetary allocation. Beyond
the funding matter, government needs to pay critical attention to issues of political commitment that will not unduly politicize the need for reform. Attention to deep analytics and data will also become essential in optimizing the available resources and allocation to the sector. This is where
government needs to urgently pay attention to matter of governance, leadership and managerial
sophistication that will allow it to pursue an education funding and governance models that draw significant stakeholders — from parent-teachers association to private businesses to old students’
associations — into buy-ins that assist government in connecting its available resources to other
investment sources for revitalizing the education sector.

Of all the nongovernmental efforts to resuscitate the functional efficiency of public schools, one
must commend those of old students’ associations. Imagine all such associations conscientiously
take charge of the development of their schools. The consequences would be enormous. However,
there is a need to rethink the modus operandi that these associations work with if such efforts
would not be in vain. There is, indeed, no doubt that there are so many well-endowed old students’
associations that have enormous financial resources and elite clout, and have mobilized the same in lifting their alma maters out of the doldrums. Unfortunately, such hands-on/out approaches have been anything but systematic. In other words, the investment to redeem the schools have been essentially infrastructural, without due attention to the critical systemic and structural
reengineering that speaks to infrastructural development of the schools on the sideline.

READ ALSO: Lead City University: The Leap of Success – Toyin Falola

The usual attention is to bifurcate the responsibilities, and leave the systemic reforms for the government to handle. Experience demonstrates that government is either too overwhelmed by the development and governance imperatives or is too disingenuous to face the demands of crumbling education to do what we all expect of it. The implication is that the investments of the associations in their alma maters end up not meeting the targets envisioned.

At the first instance, since reform interventions and investments bring the associations head-to-head with the government, some significant cautions are required that will guide the change
management dynamics involved in the interventions. The most significant of the concerns has to
do with the possibility of government abdicating its responsibility in the face of the commitment of the old students’ associations. This is further compounded by several issues having to do with
jumpstarting the reform interventions in the first place. For instance, there is possibility of non-sustainability of the efforts through reform fatigue arising from the same set of people being taxed, year in year out, in pursuing the challenging responsibility. In some cases, the intervention of the associations might just be restricted to some fundamental and strategic need to facilitate a
transformation of the business or management models for administering the schools. For example, there might be the need to return the schools to old or original owners, or the initiation of a programme of public-private partnership between the government and either the old students
associations or relevant private organizations.

In its 4-Year Strategic Plan for the Development of the Education Sector (2011-2015), the Federal Government recognized the failure on its part to facilitate the participation of the private sector and nongovernmental organizations through the Private Finance Initiative (PFI). Intervening in one’s alma mater cannot therefore be a haphazard consideration, or an investment done from the perspective of philanthropy. On the contrary, it must be a reform issue phased into a series of significant steps and processes. This is what would really make the interventions of the
associations a definitive game changer. The key dynamic is that the reform intervention must occur in a synergistic manner that will not allow the associations take over the responsibility of government. This will involve initiating strategic communication with the government on the
significance of shared responsibility in repositioning the schools. Once this initial agreement is settled, then the associations can then initiate a school-wide needs assessment, or better still utilize existing ones. Several of such assessments abound. For instance, the Education Sector Analysis -ESA (2006), of which I was the coordinator when it was initiated between 1999 and 2002, contains a significant analysis of the state of primary, secondary and tertiary education in Nigeria. The challenges involve funding, dwindling facilities, data issue, accountability, community
participation, curriculum renewal, professional development, and many more.

READ ALSO: Ibadan: My City of Fame 

Let me highlight three crucial issues that old students’ associations can benefit from in their reform intervention. The first is governance and managerial issues. This cuts across the ESA. The management of a school has a lot to do with the business model and philosophy that will determine the objectives and direction of the school. Any infrastructural renewal outside of the assessment of the business model will amount to nothing. The second issue concerns standard and quality assurance. This has to do with the professionalism of the teachers and the staff training dynamics and framework that will facilitate it. It also concerns the curriculum development mechanism that will generate qualitative learning achievement for the students. The third issue concerns critical learning infrastructures that not only further managerial matters and quality assurance in teachers’ professional development, but are relevant in redefining a twenty-first century school anywhere.

These include a digitized library, sporting facilities, scholarship schemes, quiz and debating culture, value-shaping religious instructions and activities, and many more.

From my vantage point as someone who has gone through the rounds in the public service, the old
students associations, like OBHS-NOSA, do not only have a critical role to play in rewriting the
fate of public schools in Nigeria, they also have a strategic direction to take in ensuring that their interventions are not merely cosmetic attempts and philanthropic gestures that only superficially
poke at the surface of the fundamental issues bedeviling the schools rather than digging to the depth of the predicament. The idea is to be strategic partners with the government and other stakeholders in rescuing the public schools from their seemingly inevitable destruction.

Being opening remarks by Olaopa, retired Federal Permanent Secretary, and Professor, National Institute For Policy and Strategic Studies (NIPSS), Kuru, Jos, ( as Chairman at the maiden edition of the Olivet Baptist High School, Oyo, National Old Students Association Distinguished Olivetian Lecture Series held at Lead City University, Ibadan, on Wednesday, 23rd February, 2022.


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The Treacherous Notion Of Insulting Religious Sensibilities



The Treacherous Notion Of Insulting Religious Sensibilities

By Leo Igwe
I have been campaigning vigorously for the release of Mubarak Bala, who has been jailed for insulting the religious sensibilities of Muslims, some Muslims in Kano. In the past two years, I have engaged the notion of contempt for religion as a crime or an offence that warrants any sanction or penalty. I am of the view that criticizing religions and highlighting their misconceptions, shortcomings and absurdities is a moral and intellectual duty. I have encountered many religious apologists and fence-seaters who have tried to defend the notion that insulting religion is a transgression that should be punished. In this piece, I want to reiterate the implausibility and unintelligibility of the treacherous notion of insulting religion.

As expected the brutal murder of Deborah Samuel for making supposedly blasphemous statements has reawakened the debate on insulting people’s faiths. I have seen some educated Nigerians tacitly justify this obscenity implying that the alleged remark by Deborah Samuel constituted a punishable transgression. Sometimes they put it expressly stating that they do not support making disparaging remarks about others’ religious beliefs. Look, those who try to justify the notion of insulting religion either do not understand the nature of religion or are not good students of history especially the history religions in Nigeria and Africa. Do not get me wrong, I understand that people feel hurt when their well-cherished religious or philosophical views or icons are challenged, criticized, questioned, or ridiculed. But that is what is, and what it means to live in a free and open society.

READ ALSO: Bakare Condemns Killing Of Sokoto Student, Urges Unity

And this open-society feature is not peculiar to any people or culture. In a pluralistic society like Nigeria, people hold diverse views and opinions. These views may be offensive, hurting, or insulting to others’ beliefs and sensibilities, positions, and propositions. Some people’s religious sense is others’ religious nonsense. A person’s religious food is another’s religious poison. Clear and simple. People are bound to find other people’s religious or philosophical views and opinions objectionable and disagreeable. That is normal and should be expected. Nobody should expect to live in a society where there are no opposing or contradictory views and ideas. So instead of urging against insulting other people’s religious beliefs and sensibilities, which is a pretext for oppression, repression, and suppression of other religious and irreligious ideas, a case should be made for tolerance -tolerance of other religious and non-religious ideas and notions. A case should be made for respect for the rights of others to freedom of religion or belief, and freedom of expression, not respect for others’ religious notions. Ideas should not be respected. Human beings should be respected.

It is disingenuous to accuse people of disrespecting a belief or a religion, or to expect everyone to respect a particular religious icon. That is tyranny. That is a totalitarian tendency. Religious doctrines are to be believed or disbelieved, debated, confessed, and professed. Religions are made to be entertained, embraced or abandoned, renounced, examined and analyzed, accepted or rejected. In matters of faith, respect or disrespect is a factor of belief or disbelief. Christians who treat the Bible with respect do so because they believe that it is the word of God. Muslims respect Muhammad because they believe or are made to believe that he is the messenger from Allah or the greatest prophet of all times. Now, non-Christians and non-Muslims do not share these beliefs.

How does one expect an individual to respect a belief or doctrine that he or she rejects? What does it mean to insult a belief, that one thinks is mistaken, false, or untrue? Unfortunately, religion is replete with myths and misconceptions about the universe, nature, and how nature works. Many religious teachings are outdated and incompatible with many scientific and philosophical views. To be specific, how does one expect non-Muslims to treat the prophet of Islam with respect when they do not believe in his prophethood? How does one think that a non-Christian who is of the notion that Jesus never existed would treat Jesus with respect? The mistake many believers make is to expect non-believers to treat and respect their beliefs, objects, and personalities as they do. And as Germans would say: Das gehts lieder nicht(Unfortunately, that is not possible). That is not applicable. That is not healthy for society. Yes, that is not how religions operate.

READ ALSO: The Killing Of Citizen Deborah, Our Own Malala

Now think about it, the religions which demand respect are Christianity and Islam. Meanwhile, these are not the only religions and philosophies that exist in society. Why is it that believers, Muslims in this case, feel entitled to not be offended? Meanwhile, they espouse views and notions that going by their standards insult religious and irreligious beliefs and icons of others. For instance, Muslims claim that making disparaging remarks about the prophet of Islam is a red line. Understood. They claim that nobody should cross the redline without serious consequences. Fine. But in their everyday preaching and profession of faith, they cross the redlines of others; they make disparaging remarks about prophets and propositions of other religions and philosophies. In their profession of faith, Muslims dismiss other gods as non-existent; they downgrade other prophets. Don’t Muslims know that the recitation of Shahada is offensive, insulting, and provocative to many out there?

Muslims tell us that they love their prophets more than their parents, in fact, more than any human being. They tend to forget that people of other faiths and beliefs have a strong emotional attachment to their religious and philosophical icons too. And if people were to respond violently as Muslims often do to those who scorn their faiths and beliefs then there would be no peace in the world. There would be no Muslims or Christians, no believer or non-believer to respect or disrespect religions and philosophies.

It should also be noted that Christianity and Islam are faiths that missionaries, jihadists, and scholars from Europe, the Middle East, and Asia introduced to the region. These two religions owe their spread and dominance to the activities of those who ‘insulted’ and still ‘insult’ African traditional religious gods, prophets, and beliefs. So how does one make sense of the fact that the religions whose members ask that their icons be respected are out there relentlessly lampooning other religions and beliefs as a matter of divine mission and mandate? For centuries missionaries and proselytizers have in some cases, through physical and structural violence, and impertinent insolence toward African traditional world views and identities been furthering the cause of Christian and Islamic faiths.

READ ALSO: The Killing Of Nigerian Christian Student Has Everything To Do With Religion

The idea of insulting other gods, religions, and beliefs is embedded in the religious enterprise. Insulting religious beliefs is not alien to religions. Every religion blasphemes against other religions. Each religion claims to embody absolute truth and divinity as opposed to other religions that are fake or inferior, or custodians of minor/marginal gods. Interesting no religion is monolithic. Every faith is characterized by a plurality of views and doctrines; by competing and opposing sects, denominations, and traditions. These traditions have doctrines, and they make propositions that other faith traditions consider insulting or disrespectful. So insulting religious beliefs is part and parcel of the religious business. It is what religions do as a matter of fact. Instead of urging against insulting religious sensibilities, which is often a demand from members of a particular religion wherever they are in the majority, tolerant pluralism should be encouraged and fostered. Believers and non-believers should be urged to condone other religious and irreligious views. If anyone finds a view offensive or insulting, the person should challenge it, criticize it, scrutinize it, denounce it, examine it, and yes debate or debunk it. People of all faiths and beliefs should learn to accommodate and civilly engage positions and propositions that insult or disparage their faiths or beliefs whether they are in the majority or in the minority.


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The Killing Of Citizen Deborah, Our Own Malala



The Killing Of Citizen Deborah, Our Own Malala

By Hope O’Rukevbe Eghagha

Last week the video of a body set ablaze by a mob went viral on social media. It was preceded by the still picture of a lady dressed in red lying on the ground in a grotesque manner. Life was no longer in her. She had succumbed to savagery and jungle justice by overzealous morons who accused her, found her guilty and executed her in a most barbarous manner reminiscent of the Stone Age. She died a most horrendous death at the hands of her class or school mates. She was stoned to death by students at a College of Education. The barbarous act was carried out by some teachers of tomorrow. What kind of educators would these teachers be in future? Do they recognize Nigeria? Do they realise that Nigeria is not an Islamic Republic, that is, supposing an Islamic Republic will tolerate such a murder? How are the killers better than bandits or terrorists currently plaguing the northern part of Nigeria? We have allowed a monster out of religion, fighting wars for God who obviously did not ask us to fight for Him!

It turned out that it was the body of Citizen Deborah Yakubu, a student at Shehu Shagari College of Education Wamako Sokoto, who had been murdered because, according to her traducers, she blasphemed the name of Prophet Mohammed. In a class WhatsApp platform, she had complained that the platform had been inundated with religious posts and that the platform should be used for what it was created for. Her traducers claimed she made some uncomplimentary remarks about Prophet Mohammed. Later a sweaty nincompoop, with the dark looks of a savage, released a video in which he claimed gleefully that he was the one that killed the lady in question. This in 21st century Nigeria? This is unacceptable. It is indicative of the deep division between world view of extremists in the north and the rest of the country.

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The ugly news has not been carried by cable network stations. If it happened in Afghanistan or the Middle East, her death would be on the airwaves. Fortunately, and appropriately, the Sultan of Sokoto, leader of Muslims in the country, has spoken against the murder. But he should not stop there. We expect him to personally get involved and ensure that the killer is paraded before the press as a common criminal. Except he does this, we would see the condemnation as mere lip service. The irrepressible Father Matthew Kukah has also condemned the murder and called on the government to fish out the perpetrators for the right punishment, stating that ‘’the only obligation that is owed her immediate family, her fellow students and the school authorities is the assurance that those who are guilty of this inhuman act, no matter the provocation, are punished according to the laws of the land’. Writer Gimba Kakanda wrote on a Facebook post: ‘the barbarism that transpired in Sokoto today has no basis in Islam, and it indicts us all. This culture prevails because past self-appointed punishers of blasphemers got away with their crimes. Whether in Islamic jurisprudence or our secular law, there’s no place for jungle justice, no matter how any offended mob feels’.

But the misguided zealots don’t feel any remorse. Some posts which followed the gleeful announcement on social media are instructive. The killer whose photograph is prominently displayed on social media boasted: ‘I killed her. I burnt her. You can see the matchbox I used in setting her ablaze’. One Muhammed Mode Gagi wrote, just as Bilyaminu Ladan, Sirajo Isiya and Balkisu Umar Ibrahim that: ‘You have done well, may God increase the status of Prophet Muhammed (s.a.w). Sufiyenu Yabo then concluded it: ‘Praise be to God. May Allah reward you with paradise! Which God? My question is if the head of Muslims has called it murder, from which book did the young Muslim boys and girls learn that to inflict jungle justice on a woman who supposedly blasphemed is carrying out a divine injunction?

I must state from the outset that no one has the right to insult another religion, either directly or indirectly. Christianity and Islam are the two major religions in Nigeria. Adherents must know their boundaries. To insult Prophet Mohammed is unacceptable. But it is also unacceptable for an individual to take the life of another citizen in the name of religion. This is how religious wars start. Pause for a minute and imagine what it would be if Christians in Sokoto decide to take the life of a Muslim youth in vengeance. Or if in the Christian-dominated south a Christian family carries out a reprisal attack. An endless cycle will start, the end of which no one can predict. Therefore, the Sokoto State government must rise to the occasion and bring the culprit to book.

READ ALSO: The Killing Of Nigerian Christian Student Has Everything To Do With Religion

There had been other killings in the name of religion in the past. In 1995, one Gideon Akaluka was decapacitated by Muslim fanatics for blasphemy. Nothing came of it in the form of punishment on her killers. In June 2016 Mrs. Bridget Agbaheme was brutally murdered by suspected Islamic extremists in Kofar Wambai market Kano state, over allegations that she blasphemed the name of the Holy Prophet. Except the government takes a decisive action against such criminals, more of such acts will occur in future.

The killing is most incendiary. It is provocative. It could trigger off sectarian war. As we know, religious wars are difficult to contain. The Christian Association of Nigeria should get actively involved to ensure that Deborah does not die in vain. Justice must be pursued to serve as a deterrent. The NBA and allied associations must rise to the occasion. Ebun-Olu Adegboruwa (SAN) has urged NBA-SPIDEL not to hold any conference in the state where a Nigerian citizen has ‘been brutally murdered and burnt to death…we should make a statement to the government by cancelling the conference and hold it in a neighbouring State in the North’.

What has given Pakistani activist Malala Yousafzai an international stature? It is the attack on her person by religious extremists because of her stance on education. Deborah is our own Malala, and she should be accorded that status. Her death at the hands of ignorant and defiant zealots diminishes all of us. I expect the president, the state governor and high-ranking state officials from the North to condemn the killing and order the arrest of the killer. The college management should suspend the suspect pending full a investigation. There will be no love lost between the killer squad leader and other Christian members of the class and indeed all other Christian students in the college. Some acts, small as they are, help to define a nation. Except the government punishes the killer, the government would inadvertently be promoting the emerging narrative that there is no ‘One Nigeria!

POSTSCRIPT: After submitting the essay, further developments made me return to my submissions. The culprits were appropriately arrested, leading to mass protests. There have been riots in Sokoto, with houses and property belonging to non-Muslims being targeted. Alhaji Atiku has withdrawn his condemnation of the killing of Citizen Deborah. He has lost votes, thereby. The state government has imposed a 24-hour curfew. But soldiers ought to be drafted to quell the riots that have led to the destruction of lives and property. This is no way to grow a federal republic! Government must stand firm! Mr. President must condemn the arsonists.

Professor Eghagha writes from the Department of English, University of Lagos.


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The Killing Of Nigerian Christian Student Has Everything To Do With Religion



The Treacherous Notion Of Insulting Religious Sensibilities

By Leo Igwe

Humanists are outraged by the gruesome murder of a female college student in Sokoto in Northern Nigeria. Such a horrific act is a sordid reminder of the threat of Islamic extremism in Nigeria. Muslim students at Shehu Shagari College of Education accused a Hausa Christian, Deborah Yakubu, of blasphemy; they beat their colleague to death and burnt the corpse. Ms. Yakubu reportedly protested against posting religious messages on the student Whatsapp platform. Her protest angered some Muslim students who mobilized and subsequently killed her.

The brutal killing of Ms. Yakubu is not an isolated incident. Many Muslims and non-Muslims adjudged to have insulted Islam or its prophet have suffered a similar fate in the region. In 2007, some Muslim students in Gombe lynched their female Christian teacher for desecrating the Quran. There have been other violent attacks and murders of alleged blasphemers in Muslim-dominated areas in Kano, Niger, and other parts of Islamic Northern Nigeria. Persons accused of blasphemy have been sentenced to death by sharia courts in Kano. Others like Nigerian Humanist, Mubarak Bala, have been given long prison sentences. Muslim clerics and state officials have openly and publicly endorsed the execution of blasphemers.

Police Arrest Two Over Killing Of Female Student For Blasphemy

The late Deborah Yakubu

For instance, in 2015, Islamic theocrat, Bashir Ahmad tweeted this comment after a sharia court sentenced nine persons for blasphemy: “I cannot pretend or keep silent. I support the death penalty for blasphemy. That is my belief and I will never support #SaveKanoNine”. So it is patently untrue and misleading for anyone to say that the brutal murder of Ms. Yakubu and other blasphemy-related attacks, sanctions, and bloodletting in Northern Nigeria have nothing to do with religion. No, they do. As the case of this Christian woman has shown, these bloodletters are usually motivated by their religious belief in the prophet of Islam; Islamic teachings and orientations, and by their quest to placate Allah and inherit the paradise in the hereafter.

READ ALSO: Police Arrest Two Over Killing Of Female Student For Blasphemy

So if Nigeria wants to end these horrific attacks and killings, it should take a critical look at how Islam is professed and practised in Northern Nigeria. Nigeria needs to determine if Islam is a religion or a death cult; if muslims operate within the law or above the law and if Islamic privilege is a state policy. Look, Islam has a history of violence and bloodletting that persists. The government must admit that jihadist Islam is entrenched and pervasive. Boko Haram militants are not only in the Sambisa forest. Islamic extremists exist and operate in several mosques, courts, police, and army stations. Boko Haram jihadists and their sympathizers are not a small minority as some people claim. They populate government houses, schools, colleges, and universities.

So it is high time Nigeria confronted this big elephant in the room, that is Islamic extremism. Muslim leaders should stop living in denial; they should stop pretending that jihadist Islam is not a huge problem. Muslim leaders should stop deceiving the world and saying that blasphemy killings and attacks have nothing to do with religion, in this case, Islam. No, these killings have everything to do with Islam as practised in Northern Nigeria. And the way Islam is preached and practised in Northern Nigeria must change. The government must address this toxic tendency and habit that makes muslims value their religious and prophetic icons more than human lives. Nigeria must tackle this savage and dreadful inclination of muslims to kill, attack or maim others at the slightest provocation. Nigerian authorities should monitor the activities of Muslim clerics because these religious actors use their preaching and Quranic indoctrination programmes to radicalize young Muslims and turn them into merchants of hate, violence, death, and destruction. The government should protect the rights of those who criticize the teachings and traditions of Islam and its prophet because it is through a critical examination of Islamic doctrines and practices that these extremist ideas and tendencies could be exposed and expunged.

READ ALSO: Female Student Burnt Alive Over Blasphemy

Nigeria should take measures to end impunity and ensure that those who indulge in blasphemy-related attacks or killings are brought to book. Those who carry out these barbaric acts should not go scot-free. They are murderers and criminals and should be arrested, prosecuted, and jailed to serve as a deterrent to others. Usually, when muslims attack or kill for blasphemy, no arrest is made, in cases where arrests are made, nobody is prosecuted; and in situations where some are charged to court, they are later acquitted. This culture of impunity must end if Nigeria must make progress in this 21st century. There should be serious consequences for blasphemy-related attacks. The Nigerian government should repeal blasphemy laws because as long as there are provisions that criminalize insults on religion, freedom of religion or belief and freedom of expression will not be guaranteed and these savage attacks in the name of Allah or Prophet Muhammad will continue.


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