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No Bobo! No Zobo! (Part 3)



Dele Jegede In Conversation With Prince Yemisi Shyllon

By Toyin Falola

Honesty is more than not lying. It is truth telling, truth speaking, truth living, and truth loving.
― James E. Faust

Chinedu hurls himself through the crowded roads in Alaba Market, brisking through grabbing hands, and whisking his head right and left to fish out which outlet is exactly honest and good enough to buy a phone. His phone had been stolen a fortnight before, and he had borrowed 70,000 Naira from a famous “loan app,” using his girlfriend’s phone and details without her knowledge.

“How far, bro? We are from the same village; are you not from Aba?” The right guess it is. Chinedu finds someone from his village, and they see each other as brothers, the trust coming instantly. Everything continues from there.

READ ALSO: No Bobo! No Zobo!! (Part II: Merchants of Salvation)

“Jesus! What is this?” That was Chinedu’s reaction when he got home, opened the well-sealed pack of his new phone, and found four wraps of fufu carefully placed and sealed. He had been boboed. Chinedu’s brother had given him zobo and duped him! Do you think he trusted too quickly? Or since he had practically stolen from his girlfriend, would you retort, “Ole gbe, Ole gba?” If your phone is stolen during a Sunday service in that most elegant Cathedral, located in Abuja, is it not a case of God having forgiven the thief as a sinner and rewarded him with a gift, a sign of His blessing?

In the two previous series, I wrote about men and women in high places and those who sit in the holy of the holiest but with unholy hearts. The pastors who kidnap your wallets and sleep with your wives. I have talked about the instrumentality of zobo and bobo in political and religious circles, emphasizing their readiness to use their sharp bobo claws to feed on people’s gullibility. The politicians who arrest your progress in the name of change.

But bobo is not only an act of the pulpit; the pew is also the master of the act, and the citizens are much more bobo men and women just like the politicians. I mean, Chinedu’s newly found “brother” is neither a politician, Imam, Pastor, nor an Ezemuo. Many have and can become tycoons in the bobo and zobo markets, depending on who can sell it best and make more. This series addresses those bobo and zobo masters who are no better than those discussed in the previous two series, and as always, I promise not to bobo or zobo you in any way. My fear is how you won’t bobo me!

VIDEO: Suspected Yahoo Ritualist Caught After Dropping Off An Insane Lady

After reading this piece, take a walk through Dugbe, Bodija, Alaba, Kontagora, Sabon Gari, Onitsha, and other popular markets in Nigeria to concretize what you are about to read today. Then you can ask what happened to the old stories about how a farmer could leave his tubers of yam on the roadside for sale, and even when he was not there, he would get his complete cowries or pennies for the goods because buyers would drop the monetary value of the goods next to the stack. I did not read this in story books—I experienced it in real-time in Ibadan in the 1950s and early 1960s when I, too, bought corn and bananas and left the cents. The farmer also valued his or her customers and would not put substandard goods on sale, nor did anyone in the community think of stealing the goods or the money. These stories are true: they demonstrate that the old communities thrived on trust and honesty, and their people were seen as united in faith. We have killed those communities and, with them, a culture of honesty.

Sadly, we cannot say the same for contemporary societies anywhere in the world. Dishonesty and corruption have eaten deep into the Nigerian system, and it is not because the politicians are corrupt, even though they are the ones we talk so much about. Most people are corrupt, dishonest, and full of bobo and zobo to serve around. If we then must salvage our society from these damning issues, incidents like those around Chinedu and the grassroots zobos and bobos must be cut out. This is why I ask you to visit some of those markets to make these points register well with you.

We must talk about Iya Solo’s bobo measurement cups, or those “Congo” cups with the tops slightly cut off at the top for incomplete grain measurement, in order to sell more cups in a bag of rice, beans, or other food items. About the price, the market woman will never forget to tell you how “things are costly” and that because she developed a liking for you, the profit she will be making from the transaction is just 50 Naira. Mama Solo! Why the zobo?

READ ALSO: Excellence In Education In The Context Of Pan-Africanism And Digitization

She zobos you about the quality of the grains, saying a little measure will fill your pot. Ewa oloyin, my delicacy, is mixed with brown beans, both of which will cook at different speeds and produce a different taste. You may eat dog and donkey instead of cow meat when you buy suya. When you take home a light-skinned woman, by the time she removes the wig and the powder, you confront a goat with multiple colors—red face, brown neck, and dark body. A shameless man confronts a shameless woman, bonded in the romance of deception.

We must also talk about the Omo Nna’s “Luic Vitton,” “Abidas, Varsace,” “Chaenl,” “Nkie,” or Pumba’s (sometimes with the Puma cat in the logo walking rather than leaping) merchandise branded in the corners of his room with prints and dyes. Omo Nna is ready to sell at a bogus price while telling you bobos about his containers on the sea from France; meanwhile, his factory is his room. Or should we talk about Musa’s fake Apple wristwatches with the small and half-eaten mango logo? It is hilarious, but it is the reality in the market, and much more is happening on the streets and on the internet.

Obviously, bobos and zobos are worse in the e-commerce, affiliate, and online marketplaces than in the physical markets. Prices are canceled as old prices, and items are discounted as if the outlet is offering a limited-time bonanza; however, the supposed bonanza price is slightly higher than the original price. Stories of “what I ordered versus what I got” never stop, as many online vendors deliver substandard products packaged otherwise. What about the fuel stations that rig measurements and hoard petrol, especially when there is scarcity, causing the populace so much pain? During fuel scarcity crises in the country, pump prices spike and rarely fall when supply is normalized. To make matters worse, at one point, many fuel attendants had the habit of collecting 20 Naira “gallon money” from those who bought into containers.

READ ALSO: Trickster Gbajabiamila’s Cleverly Packaged Deception Bait

Let us talk about the Omo Onile, or the popular illegitimate land sellers and land grabbers. In Lagos, one plot of land can be sold to eight people, and the proceeds can buy you a chieftaincy title, with a cut for the king who keeps his loot in a coffin. These individuals bobo their title in a piece of land, sell it to you, and then resell the same land to another person. When the real owners of the land question you and you are lucky enough to see them again, they take you to another fake piece of land, and the circle continues, with you paying through your nose. Baba Wande in Oba L’onile to the rescue! Stories of how the ancestor who originally owned the land emerged, as the founder of the place used to be a fish who wandered into the land and drove away all the crabs to possess it. The other ancestor of the person who sold the land to you was a snake who fled to Aso Rock, never to come back. Sometimes, they also harass landowners and demand money before they can use the piece of land or build on it. At every building construction stage, “owo omo onile” must be paid, and failure to do so could result in deadly conflicts.

These land grabbers come in different shades. On March 16, 2022, Vanguard News reported a protest in Lagos State by the residents of Okegun-Museyo in the Ibeju-Lekki Local Government Area. They were lamenting to the State Government about how bobo land grabbers had displaced over 2000 residents in the area, some of whom had lived there for over 12 years. Yes, the residents were being displaced, not due to natural disasters, but by the inhuman treatment excised by fellow humans. Unfortunately, the land grabbers have positioned themselves in high places of influence and government positions across the country. Some of them are traditional leaders, political appointees, and politicians who believe nothing can be done to check their antecedents.

While we talk about all these shades of bobo and zobo masters, we must also talk about the celebrated scammers and Yahoo Boys who have become a phenomenon in the country. In 2020, Nigeria was ranked by the FBI as the 16th among the countries heavily affected by the pangs of cybercrime and fraud. Fake data, as we should be among the top ten! The bobo Yahoo Boys give zobos to their unsuspecting victims, especially those abroad, by either portraying themselves as potential lovers, sugar mummies, sugar daddies, refugees, finance experts, agents, sellers, crypto-currency flippers, or people in need of help, among others to create trust and dupe people of their money and property. The local victims are targeted in similar ways or through phone hacking, disguising like an old Baba who mistakenly sends recharge card pins to the wrong persons, and many other ways.

Nigeria is said to lose over 127 billion Naira to cyber fraud yearly, and in 2020, over 5 billion Naira was lost in Nigerian banks due to fraud-related electronic transfers. The statistic is worse for the international community as this is fast becoming a global stain on the country’s image. Unfortunately, it seems the madness will not end soon as more people are being recruited into the “business” daily. A sting operation by the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), as reported by Channels Television on May 13, 2022, led to the arrest of a 24-year-old owner of a “Yahoo Yahoo Academy” and 16 other trainees to be nurtured in the act of boboing and zoboing to fraudulently obtain what other people have made from honest toils. These bobo and zobo masters become very desperate that they even resort to ritual killings to bolster the spirits that will help further enchant their victims.

Do not get me wrong; I am not saying these are the absolute or major representations of the people of Nigeria. Every society has its own shades of bobo and zobo masters and mistresses in different proportions; however, I have chosen to focus on addressing Nigeria’s. Nigerians are largely good and honest people, and their resourcefulness will always stand the nation out anytime. But citizens’ boboship is more dangerous because it forms the basis of political dishonesty and corruption that have become a major problem for the country. The nation is not in the best possible state. People struggle with poverty, lack of opportunities, insecurity, amenities, and many other challenges. Why should we then turn against one another? Why must Chinedu’s “brother” hoodwink him? Why must Chinedu swindle his girlfriend? Why must we bobo and zobo one another when, as Nigerians, we have enough trouble knocking on our doors daily?

If our country will improve, we must start from the grassroots. We must be honest with one another. We must not bobo one another or serve others zobo. Nigeria needs to change from the bottom to the top and from top to bottom. If you bobo as a citizen, you and the politicians are destroying us.

Falola is a Nigerian historian and professor of African Studies. He is currently the Jacob and Frances Sanger Mossiker Chair in the Humanities at the University of Texas at Austin.


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Reading Professor Olu Obafemi’s Melodies Of Inclement Climes



Readers’ Showers Of Encouragement
Prof. Tony Afejuku

By Tony Afejuku

    “Happiness is a crime in Nigeria.” This is a line – a line of distinction – I am lifting from a message sent to me as a response to my last Friday’s column on ‘“Professor Mabel Evwierhoma on Rubiales and “Wetin women want.”’ The owner of the lifted line is a positively dangerous poet, radical scholar and critic Professor Owojecho Omoha of the University of Abuja. I will at a later date revisit the full message of this literary scholar who is one of the distinguished boosters of this column.

    Why is his quoted line meaningful or relevant to me today? For good reason, I have been trying to reinvigorate the idea or thought of happiness in Nigeria – your country my country our country – despite our common concerns concerning our dissatisfaction with our ungrateful leaders who significantly are our demonic consumers consuming this land, our land centuries and more than centuries ago. On my way to Warri last Friday I was thinking deeply about this when I was caught in the Benin-Ologbo obstacle on that cruel stretch of the Benin-Sapele-Warri Road of urbanized or almost urbanized jungle. I was clutching Professor Olu Obafemi’s very new book of poems, his fresh new volume of poetry which he quite properly entitles Melodies of Inclement Climes. I was looking at the moving poems in my desire to erase temporarily from my mind the vicious, tedious, muddy, degraded watery road which is evidently and steadily now the road of the unhappy people of the Niger Delta, and it was at this moment that Owojecho Omoha’s line found me. But I was already engrossed in the first offering, the first poem, in which the Niger Delta malaise stares at me – even though Professor Olu Obafemi is not from the Niger Delta, your Niger Delta my Niger Delta our Niger Delta. Ologbo where conservatively above three thousand trucks (trailers) and other uncountable vehicles – commercial and private – were practically at a stand-still, moving without moving because of the motorable-less motor-way, is one of the unfortunate or tragic by-products of urbanization that is no urbanization in the Niger Delta. Ologbo is a border town, a border community that links Edo State and Delta State. It is the most significant place that links Itsekiri, Urhobo and Edo (Benin) communities. It is the place where the work of cooperation and mutual help among the communities and travellers through the communities can find significantly honest expression that should capture our cultural and patriotic ethos that should give us good health and happiness. This is what Olu Obafemi seems to tell us, among other things, in “Those who gaze beyond today:”

    While others like us 

    Bleed our land to death 

    Greedily erecting mansions 

    In other people’s lands, 

    Laundering filthy coins 

    Stolen from the sweaty brows 

    Of the poor and the deprived 

    In our own un-honed beaches and sandy shores!

    Lay to ruin and waste and wreck 

    The black Gold!

As I read Professor Olu Obafemi’s Melodies at the shores of Ologbo two things emerged to me and rose to my dense imagination in a more than realistic way and manner. The first is that Olu Obafemi is a patriot and a national poet. His imagination extends beyond his Kiri-land (North Eastern Yoruba-land in Northern Nigeria) streams to dwell on national problems that depict our respective inclement climes – or, to put it differently, in his “Streams of Kiriland” (I am not alluding specifically to his poem that bears this title) we have a glimpse of our respective communal malaise that shows us our respective inclement land in our untamed beaches in Ologbo of the Niger Delta and elsewhere outside Ologbo or Kiriland. As beautiful and as nostalgic Kiriland is or may be it is strange that urbanization and civilization have not befriended it. It is this perspective that throws up to me the second vital aspect of Melodies of Inclement Climes. Olu Obafemi conservers what is best from his (and our) past in order for the merciless problems and inclementness of today can be properly addressed. So I am not reading Professor Olu Obafemi as an entire nostalgic poet after all! Our lives’ test is not and cannot be the past or the future. It is now. It is today. It is the present. It is the here and now. Are we happy today in our country – economically, commercially, politically, educationally, medically, technologically, hygiene-wise and otherwise? Without endorsing the present that is before us we cannot honestly face tomorrow. We live in an economy and in a political clime ruled and propelled by ingratitude, disaffection and dissatisfaction and exploitation and oppression. Let me quote our poet of melodies dwelling on our inglorious climes: “Let our earth be replenished again/As scavengers and scoundrels are rid of our land.” (39).This must be so if we must eliminate “Death [that] clings to our throats/As mortal Anopheles, King of Death –/Husband of malaria, swarm/And corpses hold parades on our shores” (44). What our country needs now is a renewed vision, a full insight into our shortcomings, limits and possibilities informed by our awareness and knowledge of our place in the comity of nations. This is an absolute necessity if we must live an adequately and properly human life. 

    Professor Olu Obafemi is a super ambidextrous writer and scholar of more than numerous parts. He is best known as a play-wright, dramatist and theatre personage, theorist and critic of a profoundly profound mind. But he is without question a poet of distinction as well – which the present volume superbly makes evident. Melodies of Inclement Climes appeals to me exceedingly from the perspectives of the rhetoric of poetic drama, phenomenology, biography, memory, wrap of childhood, autobiography, history, activism, politics, geography, social exploration, revolutionary revolution, psychology, public health, progressive variation in language and feeling. I am on purpose not dwelling on all these perspectives in this briefly appealing enterprise to engender every reader’s interest in Melodies. (I am thinking of something adventurous and enchantingly enchanting outside here). With respect to the last named subject, let me titillate my readers thus: I wish you to join me to think of Professor Olu Obafemi as a magnificent poet who concentrates everything feelingly into a sentence –“Melodies of Inclement Climes;” “And hardened villains of misrule;” “And love shall visit these shores again;” “This is the story of our nation now; Debtor-elephant.”

    The beauty of Professor Olu Obafemi’s new volume of poetry is the trick of its language. The emotions or feelings the poet generates are significant enough to ensure full daylight in our inclement climes. It is thus not for nothing that Professor Olu Obafemi has been a recipient of the Nigerian National Order of Merit (NNOM) and wearer of other laurels. His rhetoric is not any adornment or inflation of words done for the reader’s unquestionable insight or for a particular effect but for a general creative power that has an intensity and concision of indubitably great poetry. 

    Melodies of Inclement Climes will leap in my arms, hands, and mind for a pretty long time of creative reading and critical happiness.  This is not an ostentatious praise, but the true judgment of a reader and critic – this reader and critic – of esthetic and moral sensibility. I duly bow and salute the poet for this fresh volume. Join me in my bow and salutation.

Afejuku can be reached via 08055213059.


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The West And The Hypocrisy Of Democracy



Dele Jegede In Conversation With Prince Yemisi Shyllon
Prof. Toyin Falola

By Toyin Falola

Western deception has been with Africa forever:

1493: Pope Alexander VI issued a papal bull, “Inter Caetera,” proclaiming the right of Spain and Portugal to enslave Africans and own the land. They were subjects. They stole your people and your land.

1885: Africa was a Dark Continent. It required colonization to become civilized. Europe would bring change and civilize them. They stole your raw materials and truncated your self-development.

1940: When over a million Africans fought in Europe, North Africa and the Far East during the Second World War, the West convinced them they were dying for freedom and democracy. But where in Africa do they receive freedom and democracy? Indeed, Apartheid was inaugurated in 1948 in South Africa.

When will this deception come to an end? So, Gabon and Niger were democracies before the 2023 coups? You must be using the wrong dictionary to define democracy. Cameroon under the invalid Paul Biya is a democracy? You must be confusing the Mali Empire with the modern country of Cameroon. And the presidents who rule for as long as they want practising democracy?

You need a little education.

Recent developments in Africa’s political space, particularly the growing number of military takeovers, have informed fresh queries around the expressions of neo-colonialism in Africa and the commitment to liberal democracy as the ideal political model for the region. The point of reference for these queries is the ceremonial reactions from the acclaimed “champions of democracy” in the West, who waste no time issuing condemnations at every instance of “democratic failure” on the continent without any actual commitment to ensuring that power indeed lies with the people. Not only have these champions of African interests—the United States (US), Britain and France—touted democracy as the best system of political organization to achieve political stability and economic prosperity in Africa, but they have also prosecuted wars, allegedly in its defence, which cost millions of lives and destabilized entire regions. However, it is not enough to accuse our benevolent friends in the West of hypocrisy without providing compelling proof of double-dealing in delivering their duties as democratic crusaders. After all, in a democratic setting, all are innocent until proven guilty. 

As a philosophy of government, democracy has existed since the Greco-Roman times. However, its foray into Africa can be traced to the eve of independence when Britain and France introduced forms of local representation as concessions to indigenous demands for independence. Thus, from 1959, parliamentary elections and other democratic institutions started to become commonplace on the continent. But, as it would turn out, this democratic experiment, which formed part of the third (global) wave of democracy, was to be short-lived—derailed as it was by fluctuating Western interests on the continent. 

Guiding Western interest in Africa from the 1950s was the ideological war between the West (mainly the USA) and the Soviet Union. The “Cold War,” as it came to be known, was the first incident to unmask the real intentions of the West for post-colonial Africa. In their quest to emerge as the world’s sole superpower, the US and the Soviet Union, who actively strove to undermine each other’s influence by, among other things, advancing their political ideologies around the world, turned to Africa as another important frontier of conquest. While the Soviet Union armed African revolutionary movements against their Western colonial overlords and provided support to openly communist governments, Washington concluded that, to effectively check the spread of Soviet influence on the continent, it was more expedient to enthrone biddable leaders in African states than it was to woo them with any ideological arguments or economic incentives.

Anxious to ensure power was handed over to reliable politicians, Britain and France became eager participants in the US policy in Africa. Together, the US and its allies targeted venal local strongmen, preferably with military backgrounds and authoritarian tendencies, who, in collaboration with its intelligence agencies, ousted legitimate/democratic governments. Notable victims and beneficiaries of this plot included (in the former category) Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, Patrice Lumumba of Congo DRC, Sylvio Olympio of Togo and (in the latter category) Idi Amin of Uganda, Mobutu Sese Seko of Congo DRC and Gnassingbé Eyadema of Togo, to mention a few. Consequently, thirty-three African countries that achieved independence between 1956-1970 became authoritarian immediately or not long after. 

Another demonstration of the complete disregard that the West has for democracy, peace/stability and human rights in Africa is its willingness to engulf the entire region in conflict so that it can achieve its “strategic interests.”  Once again, we begin from the Cold War era where, having recently come out of a highly destructive war in Europe (in 1945) and being cautious of engaging in another, the West and the Eastern Bloc turned Africa into the site of their proxy wars. In southern Africa, where the US considered both Angola and Mozambique as areas of “strategic interests,” Washington armed the 200,000 Portuguese conscripts, who went on to fight a protracted war against local nationalist revolutionaries, with imported weapons, which included defoliants and napalm. In Angola, the US, in cooperation with Apartheid South Africa, backed the National Union for Total Independence (UNITA) against the country’s (Soviet-backed) leading national liberation front, the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA). There were also similar cases in northern Africa where Sudan was funded and armed by the US against Egypt and Ethiopia, who had also pitched their tents with Moscow. These conflicts and the resultant proliferation of arms saw the loss of millions of African lives from war and famine and a general destabilization of the region. 

While the West cannot be said to have been directly involved in all the occasions of transition from democratic to authoritarian rule, in more than a few instances, the leaders of newly independent democratic/multi-party African states seized the opportunity of Western patronage to quickly switch to one-party/despotic rule. In other cases, it was the corruption, resource mismanagement, “tribalism,” patrimonialism, clientelism and imperialism perpetrated by a Western-backed ruling political class which formed the basis of military takeovers (coups). Nevertheless, in this atmosphere of quasi-democratic rule, full-fledged despotism, military rule and Apartheid—where national resources were siphoned by kleptocratic regimes and millions of Africans either became refugees or died as a result of civil wars, hunger, and human rights abuses—our western “friends” were content to look the other way if the government in place proved itself an ally of Washington.      

Perhaps the most glaring example of the West’s democratic hypocrisy in Africa was its age-long support for the highly racist and politically repressive Apartheid regime in South Africa. Like the French, who were able to cajole Washington into believing that they were fighting communist-backed insurgents in Algeria, the South African Apartheid regime, for forty years, posed as the last bastion against communists in Africa—an attitude that was able to secure a steady flow of western arms. This, alongside the West’s tacit approval, allowed for one of Africa’s most despicable shows of human debasement, carried out in the name of imperialism and racial superiority. After all, as President Ronald Regan remarked in 1981, South Africa was “essential to the free world in its production of minerals we all must have.”  

The end of the Cold War changed Western attitudes towards Africa. Without the Soviet threat, the West leaned more towards development diplomacy and foreign aid regimes as the main thrust of its foreign policy in Africa. Foreign aid to Africa, however, turned out to be a Trojan horse. Already saddled with the task of building vibrant economies whilst also harmonizing the aspirations of the different ethnic nationalities which characterized them, African countries, especially in Francophone Africa, also had to grapple with the undermining economic and political agreements they had been coerced into signing with their erstwhile colonial overlord as a condition for independence and continued patronage. To make matters worse, some African countries were, at the end of the Cold War, either fighting or had just come out of civil war. This, combined with the widespread corruption and mismanagement of national resources which characterized Africa’s tyrannical governments, put many Af5rican countries at the mercy of international monetary agencies (the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank) and their financiers whose aid they were now heavily dependent on. 

At first, these Bretton Woods institutions were content to grant loans/aid, at debilitating interest rates no less, to authoritarian leaders who used them to perpetuate themselves in power and, in return, provided the former with mineral and other economic concessions. However, without the Cold War pressures, more emphasis was placed on the liberalization and capitalist/free-market aspects of US foreign policy to guarantee return on investments. Soon enough, Structural Adjustments Programmes (SAPs) were introduced as a precondition for further loans/aid. Said adjustments, which demanded limited government intervention in the public sector, i.e., removing government subsidies in energy (fuel/gas), education and health care, brought untold hardships to already suffering populations. And as research has shown, poverty and non-tax revenue make for the ideal democratic environment. In other words, “when the government is not beholden to citizens for its funding, there is less accountability and less reason to democratize” (Tilly 1990). Instead, leaders simply use the “free” funding from natural resources (oil) and foreign loans/aid to buy enough support to remain in power. 

Judging from the various expressions of Western interests in Africa over decades, it goes without saying that the West simply pays lip service to ideologies when convenient. Although many Africans might not object to the cynical pragmatism that has always guided Western foreign policy in Africa, I dare say they will not stand for the continued lies and hypocrisy that have characterized Western reactions to African developments. Even if the above-described instances of Western hypocrisy in Africa were to be argued to be in the past, it is a living past for Africa.  

Africa, today, still has authoritarian governments in place whose political repression and human rights abuses go on unchecked by our democracy and rule of law-loving friends in the West. After being siphoned by kleptocratic governments, our commonwealth still finds its way to Western banks, where it sits and improves the local economy. Western interests continue to impoverish Africans and destabilize their regions. So, Africans are today saying to the West, its diplomats, presidents, and the other agents of its propaganda: “Your gambit in Africa is up. Our people are awakened!”   

The West has sold you a fake product called democracy. Africans, your vote is not a sign of democracy. It is no more than a deception. There is no democracy without accountability. You are just voting thieves to power. There is no democracy without transparency. You are just using your votes in support of crooks and thugs. There is no democracy without good governance. Your vote is facilitating theft. Maybe you are waiting for your turn to steal. There is no democracy without development. Your vote is moving you back to the Stone Age. Even early humans knew when to replace stones with iron during the Stone Age. Africa, you don’t have a democracy. Anyone you have not appointed cannot disappoint you! Citizens are being deceived, and they are deceiving themselves. Organize yourselves at various levels and think of alternatives to democracy or, at the minimum, how accountability and transparency will form the core of your democratic practices. Your lifetime president is not a Democrat. He is an authoritarian kleptocrat far worse than the combination of Doris Payne, Stephane Breitwieser, Simon Leviev, Veerappan, Derek Smalls, Vincenzo Peruggia, Bonnie and Clyde, Natwarlal, Carl Gugasian, Frank Abagnale, Anna Sorokin, Albert Spaggiari, Jesse James, Anthony Strangis, and Bill Mason. Do you know these names?



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Informaction: Theory Of Change And Witch Persecution In Africa



Witch Burning, Impunity And Abuses Linked to Witchcraft Beliefs In Benue State
Dr. Leo Igwe

By Leo Igwe 

A theory of change explains how activities, measures, and steps undertaken to address a problem could facilitate or help realize certain changes or outcomes. It articulates how an impact would be achieved and some progress made. In this case, the expected outcome is an end to witch-hunting in Africa. Unlike in Western countries, the persecution of supposed witches persists in the region. Witch bloodletting takes place in many parts of Africa. The persecution of people accused of witchcraft leads to horrific abuses and death. Alleged witches are attacked, tortured, lynched, imprisoned, or banished. They are subjected to jungle justice, trial by ordeal, forced disappearance, and internal displacement. Simply put, those who are accused of perpetrating occult harm are treated without mercy or compassion. Incidentally, the impression is that nothing could be done to combat or neutralize this dark and destructive phenomenon, that witch hunting is cultural to Africans. The impression is that seeking to eradicate witch-hunting in African societies is a futile effort. This notion is gravely mistaken and needs to be corrected. The Advocacy for Alleged Witches was launched in 2020 to correct these misconceptions and facilitate effective actions. It works to fill the missing link in the activism against witch persecution in the region. The AfAW is a protest initiative, and exists to challenge and dispel allegations of witchcraft.

The main goal is to end witch-hunting in Africa by 2030. This objective sounds like an ambitious goal or some pipe dream, but it can be achieved. And AfAW aims to end witch hunting based on an informactional theory of change. This theory rests on two pillars: information and action because witch hunting persists in the region due to lack of information, or misinformation, and due to lack of action, inaction, or infraction. The Advocacy for Alleged Witches uses this two-pronged approach to combat witch-hunting in Africa.

At the global level, there is a lack of information about witch-hunting in Africa. Although a lot has been written and published on witchcraft in African societies, many people in Europe and America claim do not know about raging witch hunts in the region. Part of the problem is that these publications are filled with misinformation and misinterpretation of witchcraft accusations and witch persecution in the region. Scholars have presented witchcraft accusations as benign and useful to African societies. Meanwhile these accusations are not in any way gentle or pleasant. Studies have portrayed witchcraft allegations as stabilizing and harmonizing mechanisms. They have overlooked the critical and skeptical perspective of witchcraft beliefs. Scholars have largely ignored the accused side of the story, the harmful and destructive consequences of witchcraft imputations. At the Advocacy for Alleged Witches, we work to correct the misrepresentation of witchcraft accusations in Africa. We campaign to draw attention to this imbalance in the perception of the phenomenon. But correct information is not enough. Balanced interpretation does not suffice. To combat witch persecution, information needs to be turned into action, into effective policies and interventions.

On the action side, the Advocacy for Alleged Witches takes measures to address the problem because lack of adequate information has occasioned inaction or infractions. Wrong information has resulted in apathy and indifference towards witch hunting in Africa. Many international agencies are reluctant to act; they have refused to take action or to treat the issue with the urgency it deserves. With adequate and balanced information, international organizations would take appropriate actions.

At the local level, the Advocacy for Alleged Witches works to fill the information and action gaps. Many people accuse and engage in witch hunts due to a lack of information or misinformation. Accusers act based on a lack of information about the cause of illnesses, deaths, and other misfortune. Many people persecute witches because they have incorrect information about who or what is responsible for their problems, because they are not informed about what to do and where to go, who or what to blame for their misfortunes. Many people do not know what constitutes sufficient reason and causal explanations for their problems. As part of the efforts to end witch-hunting, the AfAW highlights misinformation and disinformation about causes of misfortune, illness, death, accidents, poverty, and infertility, including the misinformation that charlatans and con artists, god men and women such as traditional priests, pastors, mallam and marabouts use to exploit poor ignorant folks. The AfAW provides evidence-based knowledge, explanation, and interpretation of misfortunes. It informs the public about the law and other existing mechanisms to address allegations of witchcraft. The AfAW sensitizes the public and public institutions, including schools, colleges, and universities. It sponsors media programs, issues press releases, makes social media posts, and publishes articles and blogs on witch-hunting in the region.

In addition, the AfAW facilitates actions and interventions by state and nonstate agencies. The post colonial African state is weak so state agencies have limited powers and presence. So the AfAW encourages institutional synergy to enhance efficiency and effectiveness. The AfAW petitions the police, the courts, and state human rights institutions. It  pressures them to act, to collaborate and take appropriate measures to penalize witch-hunting activities in the region. With an informactional approach, witch hunting in Africa would slowly decrease and diminish. Witch persecution would be a thing of the past within a decade.
Dr.Igwe directs the Advocacy for Alleged Witches which aims to end witch hunting in Africa by 2030.

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