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Dele Jegede In Conversation With Prince Yemisi Shyllon
Prof. Toyin Falola

By Toyin Falola

I accidentally owe the inspiration for this piece to Glorious Vision University and its Dean of Humanities, Dr. Samson Ijaola. I was invited to pay a courtesy visit to the University’s Lagos Campus on August 8, 2023. The traffic to Ketu, where the University is located, was not bad that day. Traffic flow has improved in Lagos since our one and only Jagaban, Ahmed Bola Tinubu, mounted the throne he claimed as his turn in the succession plan. A democracy with a Crown Prince? A throne of magic reformed the streets without adding to the traffic police or lights where the red stays on green. Those without money to buy petrol have learned to park their cars in front of their houses for dogs to look at and birds to perch. Psalms 39:6, after centuries of not having relevance in Nigeria, suddenly comes alive: Surely a man goes about as a shadow! Surely for nothing they are in turmoil; man heaps up wealth and does not know who will gather! Nigerians are in turmoil, in shadow, so says the Holy Book. Whether your car is “tear leather”, “Tokunbo”, or “Nigeria-use,” they are now entertainment pieces for pet animals as the dust gathers.

Our car on the way to Ketu stopped suddenly, not because of “go slow” or “hold up,” but because a commercial van blocked the road while the driver got out to transact his business. Everyone exercises power in Nigeria, although the driver will tell you he is powerless. Anyone who can leave his car in the middle of 5th Avenue in New York is more powerful than the Mayor. Dr. Samson Ijaola, the Dean-turned-TF-Driver, was enraged, boiling, even though his big head was not expanding. 

I love road rage, especially in Houston, where an angry driver who thinks you are driving slowly can point his gun at you. As soon as the now powerless TF-Driver could negotiate his way through his narrow path, remembering what Our Mummy in Israel, Folasade Iyalode Ijaola of Sango-Otta, told him, “But small is the gate and narrow the road that leads to life…” he yelled at the driver: ORÍ Ẹ FỌ́KÁ SÍBẸ̀!  As I wondered about his intended usage, it became “Your head is scattered!”; “Your skull is broken,” releasing its contents for pepper soup; “You are a lunatic”. A man of God from a faith-based University can quickly forget what Matthew 18:21-35 tells him:

Then Peter came to Jesus and asked, “Lord, how many times shall I forgive my brother when he sins against me? Up to seven times?” Jesus answered, “I tell you, not seven times, but seventy times seven.” 

TF-Driver does not know arithmetic! We are not from Israel, jo. Road-rage insults are how we roll in Lagos. I love them so much that I see the streets as cemeteries in cities like Gaborone and Kigali. Give me my Lagos and creative insults. 

Years before, when I gave money to an Area Boy at Computer Village, he praised me: Orí ẹ fọ́ká síbẹ̀! Our slogans, like the politicians, our Lords and Killers, of the APC and PDP, can change parties at no notice. If you stole government money as a PDP member, Orí ẹ fọ́ká síbẹ̀! You have arrived! The EFCC is after you to steal part of it, your lawyers collect their shares. Orí ẹ fọ́ká síbẹ̀! You heard that the judge might throw you into prison, and you give My Lordship his share, Orí ẹ fọ́ká síbẹ̀! Before you become broke and beg for food, cross to the APC to receive forgiveness. Orí ẹ fọ́ká síbẹ̀!

My fellow Nigerians, we know the hard work and tenacity it takes to be a Nigerian. The struggle is real, and our eyes have seen many shege. One thing we are good at is our ability to adapt, our ability to conform to changes in the system. We adapt all the time; we adapt to new environments, new jobs, new people, new relationships, new habits, new phases, new slang, and more importantly, we adapt to new governments and new problems! But still, we stand gidigba; we are doing well, our head still dey there, e never commot for body. 

Gone were when a bag of rice was sold for 10,000 and a cup of garri sold for 10. I should have “turned the side” of my late mother for a memorial service and owambe party. Our life today, na wa, as food prices go up, fuel prices put on a parachute. To build a house sef, e don cost. A bag of cement sold for 2,000 in 2015 is now, on average, for 4,600. The best legacy, education, no carry last for this matter. The cost of living in Nigeria is terribly high; being a Nigerian living in Nigeria no be beans. It is real work, but as the Igbo man will say, “wetin man go do“?

I know you have been told you are not doing well enough; you are performing below expectations compared to your fellow tech bros. Was it not all of you who graduated together last year? In fact, you finished with a first class, and they graduated with a 2.2, but now some of them have secured jobs with an oil company, another has gotten a house on the Island, and the other is driving himself around in a Big Daddy. Those guys you did NYSC with, cruising around town with expensive cars and living large, have told you to learn work and either bring one omoge or bath with the soap one Baba gave them, so you too can build a filling station overnight, but your mother’s prayers will not let you do Yahoo-Yahoo and run mad in two years. Your closest friend did not waste time before he japaed for his Master’s after graduation, and he now floods his status with pictures of him having breakfast in the snow and eating dinner on the Eiffel Tower. But you have only managed to get a job that pays 50,000 per month, flying Okada to work in the signature suit your parents managed to gift you for your convocation. Your only prayer request is that God should change your level; He has done it for your mates, ìwọ lókàn. Or is it the witches and wizards of your father and mother’s house that will not allow you to prosper? They must die by fire! So you can move forward. Amidst all of this, e no mean say your head no dey there. You are doing well regardless, doing what you know how to do best, legitimately. It will surely pay off. If Falola Baba Idan can make it without going to the Camp, you have a future.

There but for the grace of God go I

If you are a government worker in Nigeria, you would understand the struggles in the profession. Passion is supposed to drive you into doing what you love, but there is less or no motivation to work. You are probably not even proud to call yourself a salary earner; you have added five different side hustles to your job because “ọ̀nà kan ò wọ ọjà (“There is not one way to the market”). Your salaries are unpaid on time, and your fringe benefits are denied. The economy chokes, but you still dey breathe. The Pastor continues to pray and preach, but you must not forget the seeds and tithes. I don’t understand the passage used in my Church during the last service:

For the grace of God has appeared that offers salvation to all people. It teaches us to say “No” to ungodliness and worldly passions, and to live self-controlled, upright and godly lives in this present age, while we wait for the blessed hope—the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ, who gave himself for us to redeem us from all wickedness and to purify for himself a people that are his very own, eager to do what is good. Titus 2:11-14

I look around, and I cannot find my salvation. I must live before I die!

As the breadwinner of your family, the first child of your mother’s 8 children, the first of your father’s 15 children and the first and only one to find his way to japa to greener pastures, the burden of the whole family is rested on your shoulders, but your family does not understand that travelling abroad is not necessarily a green card out of poverty. Abroad is a location; if your village people follow you there, you will know what’s up. 

The competitive spirit in this country is high, where people measure their own growth and achievements using another person’s measuring tape. Who can become like Toyin Falola when you have not swallowed alive an entire tortoise in one go, washed it down with water from the Ogunpa River, and endured 2000 incisions on your head? The definition of success is not the same for everyone. To some, success is when they can build a million-dollar mansion in their father’s village. For another, success is when you manage to get a polytechnic certificate, get a government job that pays you a minimum wage, find a wife to marry, start a family and live on credit and loans from cooperative societies. While to some others, success is when one can reach their highest potential, solve human problems and live a life of fulfilment and legacy. To Falola, success is when Nigeria is successful, but the eccentric professor is waiting for the eyes of the crab to blink.

Nevertheless, whatever your definition of success is, whether you are far from it, close to it or have attained it already, your head still dey there. You see, this is not exactly a motivational piece that tells you to Aspire to perspire so you can retire to refire in Maguire, but I write to tell you that you are simply trying your best; your head dey there! You sef no small!

Let me take you back to 2009, when a Nigerian artist, then DJ Zeez, released the hit song Fọ́kásíbẹ̀ ( The song that made waves and was blasted on every loudspeaker on the street back then was the anthem of street boys. Orí ẹ fọ́ká síbẹ̀ in Yoruba loosely means “your head is scattered there”. The word is used to commend or to hail a person, to say that you are the best at what you do, and your expertise is commendable. 

The street boys in Somolu, my good friends, use orí ẹ fọ́ká síbẹ̀, orí ẹ dúró síbẹ̀, orí ẹ wà ń bẹ̀ interchangeably to show respect to whomever they are referring to. So, if I tell you ” Orí ẹ fọ́ká síbẹ̀” I mean “, I see you, I appreciate your work.”   If you are conversant with the streets as I am, you will understand the language of the street better. If you dip some naira into the hands of an Area Boy, he will hail you, saying, “Baba, orí ẹ fọ́ká síbẹ̀!”  

Dr. Ijaola is not from Somolu, and his own Orí ẹ fọ́ká síbẹ̀ is not of a positive hue. The Dean is not allowed to listen to DJ Zeez to allow me to say Orí  Samson fọ́ká síbẹ̀! Orí ẹ fọ́ká síbẹ̀ is sometimes translated as an insult due to its vulgarity and depending on the context in which it is used. For instance, if you engage in a hot argument with someone and they go on to say “orí ẹ fọ́ká síbẹ̀” you will be wise to decide that they are not singing your praise or hailing you at that moment but saying “your head has scattered” and indeed, they mean it. In fact, they mean that something is wrong with your head. In the context of insult, I would like to deviate to say that something is wrong with the head of Nigerian leaders; they are sick in the head, but let us leave their matter aside.

It is the head a fish uses to swim through water— orí lẹja fi ń l’abú já. It is your head that makes way for you in life. You have often questioned God why your head seems to not have made way for you. Are you a spoon? A fork? Or your own head is just bad? Those making it, do they have two heads? Or how many heads is one supposed to have to make it in life, reach the peak of his career, and be in the limelight? Or was it your head your ancestors used to appease the gods? Or did your rich uncles use your head for their money ritual? You have asked all these questions and more. Perhaps you have consulted several churches, and they have told you things are not working for you because your head is bad and you will need to undergo some celestial rituals where they will dress you in a white garment, take you to the riverside, tie you down, whip your head with seven brooms so that they can flog out ill-luck from your head. They will also have to break a coconut on your head while 7 candles melt in your hands. Then, your head can begin to make way for you. 

You admire the dons and captains of industries in Nigeria, whose heads have taken them to the top. Speak of the likes of Aliko Dangote, Folorunsho Alakija, Tony Elumelu, and even that small boy from Ojuelegba, Wizkid. The Yoruba believe that ibi orí má dé, à dé bẹ̀, which means you will surely get to where you are destined to be. You have to keep pushing and believing in yourself. 

Glorious Vision University and Professor Babatunde Idowu, the Vice-Chancellor, oil dey your head. You may not be where you want to be yet, but you no go carry last; your head is there! Staff and students of Glorious Vision, on Monday, a day after your Sabbath, dance to DJ Zeez, Fọ́kásíbẹ̀ (!

“I tell you, her sins, which are many, are forgiven—for she loved much. But he who is forgiven little, loves little.” And he said to her, “Your sins are forgiven” (Luke 7:47-48).

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Moral Values In A Changing World



Prof. Hope Eghagha

By Hope O’Rukevbe Eghagha

JUSTICE: This world has degenerated into abysmal filth, immoral ungodly concupiscence, infantile greed, atavistic, primitive acquisition of property, and satanic hopelessness! The judiciary, the political class, the church, our royal fathers, and most other socio-cultural institutions have fallen into the cesspit of indiscipline and lack of respect for ethics! The Labour movement that used to be in the forefront of discipline cannot be trusted anymore!

MARIAM: Hehehehehehe! Okpoyibo! Big grammar is talking. I must invite Hon Patrick Obahiagbon to compete with you on explosive vocabulary.

PROFESSOR: That’s an old song. Our parents said the same thing some forty odd years ago.

UMUKORO: You are right; it is the way of the old to berate the world and say the past was better!

JUSTICE: Kindly don’t reduce the profundity of my introspective submission to the jejune level of the banal as has been the hallmark of pseudo-intellectuals in the polity!

MARIAM: I am going to get a new and bigger dictionary. I can’t find Michael West anymore!

JUSTICE: If you still restrict yourself to the archaic confines of Michael West, then you are a victim of historical detention, arrested development, and exploration of the brave new world!

MARIAM: I give up!

UMUKORO: Who still uses a dictionary in the 21st century? Ask Google my dear, ask Google!

JUSTICE: Your infantile and rudimentary knowledge of homonyms limits your capacity to process thoughts of the new century. Away with you, thou physically beautiful body without an intellectual soul. I take exception to people denigrating my exceptionally brilliant exegesis on the state of Homo sapiens!

PASTOR: ‘And in the last days, iniquity shall abound and the love of many shall wax cold’, so said the Master. The time is here!

PROFESSOR: A broken record! A broken record waxed hundreds of years ago!

PASTOR: But he that shall endure unto the end, the same shall be saved!

PROFESSOR: Saved from what? Another holocaust? Another atomic bomb dumped on humanity?

PASTOR: Do you spurn sacred and biblical prophecies?

PROFESSOR: General prophecies mean nothing to me. Look here Mr Pastor. For all the false prophecies which members of your infernal gang of profiteering pastors gave before the last general elections, you should be behind the bars of God!

JUSTICE: It is not late, not too late at all. The hounds of heaven are waiting for all the false pastors, especially those who have commercialized the Lord’s work! A wonderful and abominable thing is happening in the land. The prophets prophesy falsely, and the people love it so!

PROFESSOR: One preacher I knew used to say that one false prophet was more dangerous than 100 armed robbers. Now I understand why!

UMUKORO: Armed robbery is no longer fashionable. Pen robbery fetches millions of naira with one stroke. Just add two zeros to the figure or transfer public funds to a private account.

PROFESSOR: I spoke metaphorically!

PASTOR: When it is becoming fashionable for persons of the same gender to marry and be recognized by the state, then the world is coming to an end.

UMUKORO: Sodom and Gomorrah incurred God’s wrath with that abomination!


MARIAM: When Supreme Court judges dispense political justice, then the end of the state as we knew it, has come.

UMUKORO: Even in America! Democratic judges give judgment guided by the so-called liberal values of the democrats while republican judges give conservative verdicts like abolishing the right to having an abortion!

JUSTICE: What then is justice?

MARIAM: Self solution! Your name is justice!

PROFESSOR: Aren’t we mixing oranges and apples in the same basket?

PASTOR: Let the tares and the wheat grow. At the harvest the Lord shall do the separation of sheep from goats!

JUSTICE: Eschatological metaphors can be used to rationalize and explain currents and undercurrents of contemporary events. It is very convenient to do so!

PROFESSOR: I am disappointed that our Nobel laureate could make such a one-sided pronouncement on the 2023 general elections. Unlike him, he didn’t speak like a man who comprehends the totality of our traumatic experience in February 2023!

MARIAM: But he spoke his mind. The Constitution guarantees freedom of expression!

JUSTICE: He spoke with the finality of a judge. I respect him for that. But he should also like an elder have acknowledged the level of rigging and violence which marred the exercise. The general thinking is that he is silent on that aspect because a friend of his now occupies Aso Rock!

MARIAM: That is a most uncharitable thing to say about a man of such intellectual distinction and moral probity!

JUSTICE: Excuse me! Has he occupied any public office in the country to enable you to arrive at that conclusion? Has he been tested?

MARIAM: His name is a shield. His name travels before him.

JUSTICE: Why did he wait for the PEPT to make a pronouncement before proclaiming his tigritude?

PROFESSOR: Let’s leave that old man alone jor! I’m more interested in the shuffling feet at the CBN. What exactly is going on? Was there no due diligence before Shonubi was asked to act as Governor of the Central bank of Nigeria? Didn’t they know, couldn’t they have suspected that he was part of the rot that ran that institution aground in the dying days of the former president?

PASTOR: Alas, it has given the president the opportunity to appoint his own man as governor. The new man by all account is competent and exposed in the financial world!

PROFESSOR: My only worry is whether he will have the gumption to say no if he receives obnoxious directives from his boss.

JUSTICE: How many appointees in our country have the liver to say no to the indiscretion of their bosses? It is not in our DNA!

MARIAM: In Lagos state, the Speaker of House said no to the governor on the appointment of some commissioners! The heavens did not fall.

PROFESSOR: The heavens almost fell. But that speaker is arrogant. No big man can trust him. Or was he dancing to music being played in higher quarters to spite the governor?

MARIAM: Who knows! It is possible. The ways of politicians are not straightforward. How could he say that he and the governor are colleagues! He has no respect for the office!

UMUKORO: I felt sorry for the governor! This attempt to humiliate him all in the name of politics.

JUSTICE: I hear it is all about 2024. If he is thinking of becoming governor, that statement will return to haunt him in future!

PASTOR: Now! Now! Now! Is the Dubai visa ban still hanging over us or Mr. President got the desert kings to lift the embargo?

JUSTICE: Is there any ‘gbajue’ going on?

PROFESSOR: Hahahahahaha! The more you look, the less you see. Proverbs to bones and silence!

UMUKORO: I don’t think it is ‘gbajue! It is possible that there was an agreement in principle which would require Nigeria to finetune certain details before going public. A federal government cannot tell lies about such public matters!

PASTOR: When the saviour comes, let him that be on the rooftop not come down to be saved. You will run to the mountain and the mountain will be melting!

MARIAM: And the sea will be boiling!

PROFESSOR: Who will save us? Who can take the nation back to factory reset? Shall we invite Nnamdi Azikiwe, Obafemi Awolowo, Gen. Aguiyi Ironsi, and Ahmadu Bello to rescue us?

PASTOR: Perish such thoughts please! Those men have not been able to save themselves. How can they save anybody? Jesus Christ is the answer!

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A Response To Toyin Falola’s Obasanjo, Obadide And Obajoko



Former President Olusegun Obasanjo

By Yinka Agbetuyi

Toyin Falola’s “Obasanjo, Obadide and Obajoko” is a timely article that captures the complexities and contradictions of a Yoruba (even Nigerian) in transition. It reframes the questions: ‘transition to where?’ How will this transition be better managed? Until these two questions are adequately resolved Yorubaland (and Nigeria) will always be in constant crises.

    It is very important that the essay brings out the fact of extant kingships alongside modern polities in Europe like the UK and Belgium, (there are still twelve extant monarchies in Europe) where the monarchs are not subordinated to modern politicians and humiliated thereby. So which West are the Yoruba (and Nigerians) copying?  Newfound lands, mainly the US – as well as Australia and Canada- stolen from the aborigines.

    Yoruba people and fellow Nigerians must constantly be reminded that the success of the anticolonial struggles was about stopping such occurrence in Africa.  Perhaps Yoruba Nation advocacy was geared toward the same goal, but lacked effective strategies. At the last stop before Tinubu’s unexpected victory, the groundswell was for Yoruba Nation advocates to go into partnership with other Nigerian ethnic nationalities and evolve a workable blueprint that takes into consideration each group’s preference and the rate of and speed of integration into the totality – the North’s preference at independence, and Awo’s true federalism- supplanted unfortunately by the adoption of an American presidential federalist model, hook line and sinker!  My reaction over the decades is that Nigeria is not necessarily vying with others for the position of the 51st state of the US.

    In my own summation in diverse forums, as it exists now in Europe, the royal houses should be clearly delimited and given definite CONSTITUTIONAL roles and worthy remuneration. First Class traditional rulers should earn the same salaries as sitting governors (Nigeria can afford this option many times over from a mere fraction of its stolen wealth if recovered). Monarchs will in turn underwrite the integrity of the polity by being constitutionally tasked with the appointment of auditors who will scrutinise State spending (states and federal) and projects in their domains and report directly back to such MONARCHS for onward transmission to state chief executives and the presidency.

    Traditional rulers should be elected and appointed only by traditional councils and their appointment signed into law (but not subject to nor subordinated to) the state governors.  After all the days of crass illiterate caricature of traditional rulers is long gone.  Traditional rulers should therefore be structured as parallel instruments of and facilitators of governance in a check and balance structuration of governance, in a carefully integrated whole to achieve total governance – the transient and the permanent. Lesser traditional rulers should be administered by the First-Class rulers (in council) who will recommend their emoluments, (and functions) subject to rankings to state governments.

    Only First-Class rulers (in council) should be able to recommend the creation and elevation of lower ranked rulers to the states according to the existing norms of such communities, (they did this well enough in the precolonial days) and the state government should only administratively approve or reject such recommendations based on financial contingencies. This formulation should neutralise party politicking in the creation and maintenance of traditional rulership.

    Yes, traditional rulers must be constitutionally barred from seeking and accepting contracts from their states of origin and from the federal government, the same way a governor is not notionally entitled to be awarded a contract by their own government.  In the British system, this is called declaration of interests by parliamentarians (whether in government or not) in the register of interest book.  This is to prevent conflict of interests of the person in government (and their associates) and their official duties.  This provision demonstrates that greed is a universal phenomenon unless and until checked by relevant laws (witness the UK Parliament’s expenses claim scandal in 2010.)

    Now that the Tinubu struggle has been fought and won, the Yoruba Nation advocates, must in continuation of their activities not rest their oars on the ship of State, but intensify such by taking the lead in the quest for this new reality, by reaching out to like minded nationalities across the country to achieve the constitutional change for a better, stable and prosperous tomorrow for Nigerians.

Prince Agbetuyi is a Professor of Comparative Arts & World History at the Edutronix Institute, London.


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Use Your Penis: Hopes, Expectations And Realities Of African Migrants In Europe



The panelists at the event.

By Leo Igwe

The issue of migration to Europe has been in the news. There has been intense discussion on how to tackle the flow of migrants to, not from, Europe. There have been reports of boats carrying migrants capsizing or missing on the Mediterranean Sea. Many Africans have died trying to enter Europe via the Sahara desert. North African and European countries have taken measures to curb illegal migration and human trafficking. Still, the migration flow out of Africa continues and shows no signs of abating. Why has the migration of Africans or migration from Africa become such a huge problem? What are the hopes, experiences and realities of these migrants?

In August I was invited to speak at a seminar on migration. The focus was on the migration of Africans to Europe. The event took place in Bergen, Norway. As a doctoral student, I lived in Germany for six years. I was invited to speak at programs on migration. Governmental and nongovernmental agencies in Denmark and Germany organized the events. I did not find these events interesting because the focus was on human trafficking and the role of African juju and witchcraft. Do not get me wrong. Human trafficking is a huge problem and needs to be addressed. But we have to tackle the problem from the root. These events were by my estimate a complete waste of time and money because organizers and participants were not ready to tell themselves the truth, face the facts and address the real issue. They want to make themselves feel good and privileged while talking about these helpless Africans streaming to their shores. Organizers were more interested in marginal voodoo, and oath-taking issues. They made it seem as if there was something unusual about African migration. But there was not. Migration is as old as human beings. Humans from all races and regions have been migrating from one region to another, from one country or continent to another. Before this recent wave of migration out of Africa, people from Europe, America, and Asia have been migrating to Africa. They are still migrating for business, social, economic, religious, and political reasons.

Contemporary African migration is mainly economic. It is driven by poverty, miserable living conditions, and the devastation of African economies by European, Asian, and American companies. To tackle the problem of migration, African economies must be fixed. The continent must realize an economic leap. Now instead of focusing on the economic roots of the problem and how to address them, many Europeans and Americans expend energy discussing trivialities, such as the role of voodoo and so-called powerful witch doctors in Nigeria. Well, at these events, I told the organizers the bitter truth. I told them to forget this juju or voodoo talk and face the reality: the destruction and revival of African economies. I told the organizers what they did not want to hear. And they never invited me back.

But this time around it was different. The organizers were not Europeans or Americans. A Nigerian student at the University of Bergen staged the event. He contacted me some months ago, drawing my attention to the plight of African migrants in Norway. He explained how many who travel to Norway and other European countries had their hopes and expectations dashed. Many who migrate to this country or other European countries end up entrapped. They are compelled to go into things they did not plan to do. Many migrants end up in a new form of slavery, in a marriage to a European citizen. Left with the option of going back to Africa at the end of their study or marrying to get the documents to stay, many end up contracting a marriage, in many cases a paper or document marriage. These marriages entrap them, they turn these migrants into errand boys and girls. Many of them are mistreated. They suffer silently. If they misbehaved, their partners would threaten to report them to the authorities and get them deported. I was told that many in the African migrant communities were not helping matters. Someone told me that he approached some migrants seeking and wanting to know how he could navigate migration issues. But the person told him: “Use your penis”. I guess for a female it would have been a case of: Use your vagina. While studying in Germany, some African migrants told me how they were sexually exploited, and dehumanized before they could get legal documents to stay in the country. One woman told me that everyman who wanted to help her wanted to sleep with her.

So, the program was cathartic. It provided a space to let out these pains, sufferings, disappointments, and frustrations.

The event brought together ‘free-will’ migrants and Norwegians. The panelists were from Ghana, South Sudan, Nigeria, and Belarus. I was the only international guest on the panel. Other panelists discussed the hurdles that they have faced, and the challenges that they confronted trying to live and integrate in Norway. As one panelist noted, many who come to study were unable to find a job at the end of their program. In many cases, they graduated and found out that there was no job for them, or they were unable to speak the local language, which was a requirement for many jobs. Another panelist from Ghana, married to a Norwegian, discussed her challenges as a migrant parent in Norway. She recounted how her child had suffered racism in the school. She narrated an experience where the child did a group assignment with four other white Norwegian children. And the teacher gave her child four marks for the assignment and other group members five marks.

There was some discussion on illegal migration and the risks involved. Some Norwegians in the audience noted that many African migrants knew about the risks they could face migrating to Europe. And still, they decided to embark on the risky journey. There was a lot of focus on migrants and their experiences traveling from Africa. However, little or no attention was paid to the European connection with the problem, the fact that western foreign economic policies have devastating effects on African economies. Africa is a market for Western goods including Norwegian stockfish. Apparently Europe needs African markets not African migrants. Western multinationals are relentlessly plowing and plundering the resources of Africa in ways that have displaced the local populations. African professionals are leaving in droves. They are migrating to work in the West and the Middle East. So, Western economies profit from the migration flow and the cheap labor it provides. Western countries benefit from the economic status quo that has turned Africans into migrants and refugees in Europe and America. To contain the flow of migrants to Europe, the situation in Africa must change. African economies must begin to grow and improve. Western governments must end the economic exploitation of Africa.

Dr. Igwe directs the Advocacy for Alleged Witches.

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