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Counterterrorism, Technology, And Development In Africa

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Las Las! (1)

By Toyin Falola
Undoubtedly, Africa has a persistent issue with insecurity. Terrorist groups like Boko Haram and Al-Shabab have continued to endanger the security of people’s lives and property as well as the survival of democratic governance in Africa. Unsurprisingly, the threat of terrorism has put Africa’s collective development and growth in even greater jeopardy. Due to the fear of investing in countries affected by terrorism, economies have collapsed. As statehood in some of these impacted countries slowly deteriorates, political advancements have also been hampered. Lately, discussions have focused on how crucial it is for African governments to stop this threat and nip terrorism in the bud. Africa is experiencing a rise in terrorism, which in addition to other humanitarian disasters, has caused mass migration and the loss of lives and valuables.

One of the key factors contributing to the domination of insurgency is the frailty of political institutions in most African countries. The blunt truth is that terrorism grows when the government is unwilling to combat it. Take the case of Nigeria as an example, the government’s longstanding unwillingness to engage in tactical warfare with Boko Haram has blown the destructive activities of the terrorist group beyond proportion, creating fertile ground for other insurgents to rise, and daily, it becomes even more complex to eradicate them. Repeatedly, worries have been expressed about the predicament of African countries in the face of internal and international terrorist attacks, as well as concerning potential repercussions for African political states, most of which have been labelled as weak or failed states.

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While different state actions have been carried out against terrorist groups, the lack of robust democratic institutions in Africa is a significant barrier to the success of counterinsurgency efforts across the continent. African nations have been unable to work together to combat insurgency due to acrimonious politics. A close examination of leadership structures in African nations reveals that most of them are unsuccessful. How would this lead to success against the rebels in nations where the state and the people are constantly at odds? Internal conflict hinders African democratization and fosters rebel domination in return. It is sadder that democratic leaders also take advantage of their nations’ security to run for political office. Regrettably, most African leaders now place fighting terrorism at the top of their list of political priorities just because it commands a lot of emotions that can sway elections in their favour and not because they genuinely want to tackle it. Most African states’ security structures are, in fact, relatively flimsy. In many nations, domestic conflict further expands security gaps and creates the conditions for the insurgency to flourish.

In debates about terrorism, technological progress is unavoidable. Terrorists in Africa are developing, thanks to technical advancements. Terrorism and counterterrorism rapidly assume a new shape in their operations and subject engagement due to the expanding global instrumentalization of technology. Although both countries and terrorist organizations are modernizing their operation methods, there is evidence that many terrorist organizations in Africa are rapidly creating technical solutions to enhance their lethal operations. The internet, especially, is one technical tool feared for its potential to significantly impact global security. Policymakers are concerned about how communication networks like the internet may be used to carry out terrorist activities. Internets, specialized websites and social media platforms are frequently used in conjunction with secured networks to set up chat rooms for talks and activity monitoring, produce disinformation that could incite panic and conduct recruitment in Africa. Today, terrorist organizations like Boko Haram, Al-Shabab, and others use untraceable video and audio recordings to broadcast attacks, demand ransom for hostages, and engage in other despicable activities.

 READ ALSO: Gunmen Kidnap Over Three Policemen

Terrorism in Africa has a detrimental effect on the socioeconomic and political developments of the region. However, it has been demonstrated that successful counterterrorism has benefited, or at the very least can improve, the socioeconomic and political environments on the continent. Like every other continent, Africa has experienced significant terrorist activity. The effects of terrorism, however, have affected Africa far more than other, more developed continents. Terrorism still exists on the continent of Africa despite the efforts of various African nations and regional and international organizations to combat it. The failure of the different counter-terrorist strategies launched to maintain long-lasting peace on the continent has exacerbated the continent’s underdevelopment. Despite security issues, Africa lags behind other continents in scientific, social, and political progress.

These reasons are why it has become paramount for African counterterrorism efforts to keep up with technological advancement. Due to the unique characteristics of each nation, the specific insurgent groups, and the nature of operations, counterterrorism battles in Africa assume diverse forms and employ varied techniques. Departments, institutions, and programs have been established in countries to address the crime afflicted by terrorism. In addition, several laws, regulations, and directives have been passed to guarantee the success of counterterrorism initiatives and tactics. Technology and new technologies are used to acquire additional intelligence and prepare for counter operations.

READ ALSO:  “Cut Soap For Me!”

Creating powerful political institutions is the first transition stage African nations must go through. A nation’s political structure has a significant role in determining its security architecture. Launching counterterrorism investigations and conflicts between the political class and those in important leadership positions with access to resources and intelligence that could jeopardize government efforts is the second transition stage. As a result, corruption and money laundering are curbed, closing doors to money that may be readily transferred to fund terrorists. Additionally, collaboration with the public is required to create a community policing operation. By acting as informants and providing the necessary information to security personnel, citizens would be involved in the security architecture of African states. African nations must also calm ethnic tensions that could lead to domestic conflict because internal weakness in a nation creates favourable conditions for insurgency growth. Insecurity in Africa stems from internal crises that aim to undermine people’s safety and the African state’s coherence. Therefore, individual African states must organize more effective counterterrorism policies.

For this to be accomplished, effective political leadership and corporate governance must be ingrained at the internal level of the African state. Each African state administration must understand that defeating terrorism requires teamwork and must demonstrate the capacity and willingness to achieve victory. This is because if internal conflicts are permitted to persist and damage the political structure, it will pave the way for external forces to invade. African nations must fortify political institutions in their particular domains to achieve a change in the security architecture. Also, African governments must work together with other nations to implement counterinsurgency strategies. The African Union and regional organizations like the ECOWAS must intervene to maintain Africa’s peace and security. African nations must cooperate on forward-thinking projects to reach a common goal.

READ ALSO: God When?

The trajectories of political and economic progress have been significantly impacted by security issues brought on by internal conflict, civil wars, and terrorist acts. In light of the continent’s security issues and other difficulties, and to address the problems that are slowly destroying the continent, African political leaders must use the opportunity to restructure the continent’s democratic system. The promises made by African leaders to develop counterterrorism technology development plans must also be reaffirmed. Establishing strong democratic and political institutions in each African state is crucial to transform Africa into a safe continent free from terrorist attacks and other types of danger. These institutions must be capable of using the military and diplomacy to combat terrorism.

Lastly, the effectiveness of the actions and policies put in place by the individual governments of African countries will significantly impact the future trajectories of counterterrorism and security in the continent. For African nations to effectively battle terrorism and firmly establish peace and security throughout the continent, better political institutions must be built, alliances with militarily stronger states must be formed, and counterterrorism policies and actions must be well coordinated. African nations must build strong political leadership and corporate governance in the battle against terrorism to overcome the insecurity dilemma brought about by terrorists in their continent. Only then can the fight against terrorism in Africa be won.

. Excerpt from a Keynote Address, International Conference on “Counterterrorism, Technology and Development in Africa”
September 22, 2022
Stellenbosch University and Obuda University.

 

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Opinion

Las Las! (1)

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Las Las! (1)

By Toyin Falola

E don cast
Last, last
Na everybody go chop breakfast
Have to say bye-bye, oh
Burna Boy, “Last Last”

Nigeria’s social decadence has been attributed to various issues, ranging from the family to society as a whole. Family problems brought on by unhappy marriages, divorces, and negligent parenting have been identified as contributing factors to Nigeria’s social dysfunction. Some claim that children inherit features from both parents, but what happens when a child’s parents are unable to give him or her a proper upbringing? These are the depressing truths about people’s perceived shortcomings as members of society. Do we keep saying, “las las we go dey alright”? What impact would this have on the nation?

Tobias was roused from sleep by the cockerel’s crow, an alarm system created by nature. The feed of his roommate’s transistor radio crept into the room, bringing him news headlines about the rising price of petroleum and food items. The news was interrupted by “E don cast, last last na everybody go chop breakfast.” That was the intro to the trending song on the streets, “Last Last” by Burna Boy, although he creatively added his own “t” to the people’s “las” (https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=421w1j87fEM). His roommate and friend, Malik, who had allowed Tobias to squat at his place after leaving his parents, had been disgusted by the news and changed the channel. Ironically, neither of them had an idea where their breakfast for that day would come from.

READ ALSO: Adulthood Na Scam!

Inhaling a lungful of the hemp aroma that had seeped into his room through the window, Tobias noted that the boys outside had started smoking weed again. Welcome to the world of the living, Tobias. He always referred to himself as a part-time orphan. His father and mother had gone different ways before he clocked the age of ten, and he had only spent a couple of years with them together and separately. A drunk, pilferer, and a ball of brute anger was not someone he would like to point to as his father, nor a pathological liar and lady of the night his ideal woman whom he could call his mother. Hence, one day, he left his mother’s place and did not return to his father, instead resolving to carve a route to success for himself in a tough world.

This decision was made soon after completing his senior secondary school education. He was an average student with no family to finance his tertiary education, but, like the rest of his mates processing their admission into various universities, he began to make his moves with high hopes. His parents were in his past now, and he resided with his friend in the slums of Agege in Lagos, where he was able to secure a job as a waiter in a local beer parlour. The pay was not much, but he was motivated and could save up to purchase his Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB) examination form.

A day before the exam, he notified his Madam that he would resume slightly late to work the following day. When she heard why he would come late, she looked at him weirdly and asked why he was taking the exams. He told her about his ambition to further his education in a tertiary institution. She listened calmly with rapt attention and let him finish before bursting into wild laughter. Tobias was perplexed by her reaction. She did not let him wonder much about the reason for her behaviour before asking him the million-dollar question that he had no answer to: “Who will pay your school fees and take care of you in the university?” Tobias stood there scratching his head till his Madam dismissed him with a wave of the hand and more thunderous laughter.

READ ALSO: ASUU’s Rightful Battle Of Moral Conscience Against Financial Realities

The exam day looked perfect. It was the right mood, a bright sky, and serenity that was rare for the kind of place he resided in. He arrived at the exam centre brimming with confidence and happiness. Those who have tertiary education will get good jobs and make big money in the future. He was about to take a big step toward securing that tertiary education; he would be so rich in the future.

Shortly after the examination commenced, Tobias realised the serenity that came with that day was nature’s way of mourning the fact that he had wasted his money on the exam. Every single question looked like it was written in Latin. He was perplexed when he scrolled to the last question, only to find out he did not understand even one. Tobias had expected some of the questions to be tacky because he did not have the time to study and depended largely on his knowledge from secondary school. But to his shock and amazement, some of the questions were not tacky—ALL of them were! He began to sweat profusely.

With only 15 minutes left on the clock, Tobias had not selected one answer at the time most of the other candidates were already leaving the hall after completing their exams. Now 10 minutes remaining, he decided to do the guesswork for his exams rather than submit a blank answer script. If he put his best into trying to select the options he felt were correct, he probably stood a better chance of scoring some marks. A few marks here and there were better than an outright zero.

Tobias dragged himself back to his workplace from the exam centre to put in his shift for the day. It was evident that something was wrong from his face, but no one cared enough to ask about his troubles. He wished he had good parents whom he could turn to for solace. At home, he told Malik his ordeal. After listening to his lamentation, Malik asked why Tobias worried himself over tertiary education that was obviously meant for rich kids. The poor ones who manage to get into the institutions are frustrated by strikes orchestrated by the government and the lecturers. After a short pep talk, his friend whisked him to a beer parlour, where Tobias downed shot after shot of local dry gin to make him forget his worries while he helped himself to two parcels of weed.

After that night, God became the most sought-after entity for Tobias. He had heard the many miracles God had done for those who followed His teachings and kept His commandments. Tobias prayed earnestly about his exam results; he needed a miracle. He also fasted, and his hope gradually increased when he occasionally dreamt he had one of the best results. Tobias interpreted the dreams to be visions of his forthcoming examination success. As the day for results drew closer, his confidence increased, and his fear lessened.

The news that the examination results had been released got to Tobias at work. He was not in a rush. He patiently waited till he was home before checking his scores. 34. Nothing more, nothing less. Tobias was brought back to the harsh reality of his fantasy world. He had failed the exam woefully. This time, he did not wait for Malik and his “motigbesona” (a street derivative of “motivational”) speech. He went to their usual joint and ordered shots of gins before his friend joined him. That night, he smoked weed with Malik for the first time. After coughing repetitively, he gradually started to get the hang of it. On getting to bed, his head was free of worries, and sleep came for him like it had not been in months. From then on, Tobias faced life squarely. Weed and gin became his tools for clearing his mind.

He made up his mind to try JAMB again the following year. This time, he got textbooks from secondary school students around his place and wrote the exams. When the results came out again, there was no cause for joy because it was another woeful result. In the third year running, Tobias paid for a special centre—one of our “miracle centres”—that helped students with the exams and increased their chances of scoring high marks. This time, he was sure it would end on a good note. On exam day, he and a colleague, who had paid extra for special assistance during the exam, had no help. However, they were assured that their results would be doctored and they would have good grades. The results came, and again, it was terrible. He had been duped.

Las Las, Tobias gave up on taking another exam. His friend, Malik, also nailed the coffin when he said that many graduates are seeking non-existent jobs and that Tobias should just face his hustle squarely because, at the end of the day, the goal for both graduates and non-graduates is to secure financial stability. With this as his watchword, Tobias wakes every day to take on all the menial jobs he can lay his hands on to survive. Gin and weed became his go-to mediums for relieving the stress that comes with the struggle for survival.

READ ALSO: Excellence In Education In The Context Of Pan-Africanism And Digitization

Every evening, after returning from his daily hustling and bustling, he joins the boys smoking outside:

I need igbo and shayo (shayo)
I need igbo and shayo (shayo)
I need igbo and shayo (shayo)
Shayo (shayo) shayo (shayo)

*(This piece is dedicated to Dr. Yemi Ijaola, a cardiologist based at UCH, Ibadan, who has enriched my slang vocabulary, and to my street guys and “Area Boys” at my various joints in Somolu, Yaba, and Onigbongbo)

Falola is a Nigerian historian and professor of African Studies. He is currently the Jacob and Frances Sanger Mossiker Chair in the Humanities at the University of Texas at Austin.

 

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Opinion

ASUU’s Rightful Battle Of Moral Conscience Against Financial Realities

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ASUU’s Rightful Battle Of Moral Conscience Against Financial Realities

By
Tony Afejuku
I am suspending my focus on your Speaker of House of Representatives. I hopefully will re-touch next week, barring the un-expected, the first among equals in our House of Polifoolicians (H of P). For now I am yielding space to a reader who introduced himself to me as an un-employed Nigerian graduate – a delightfully articulate fellow. He is Dele Owolowo. Enjoy his peculiar rhythm on the ASUU-FGN’s intangible and tangible battle of wits and bluffs.

Hearty greetings to you, Sir and thank you, for the excellent pieces on ASUU.

On the ASUU-FGN issue ASUU would remain on the back foot while the government calls the shots.

READ ALSO: Trickster Gbajabiamila’s Cleverly Packaged Deception Bait

The main reason our education sector can be belittled and seemingly betrayed is because it is a sector with few economic aces to play and for this reason it brings little to the economic table (kindly clip the education sector I sent to your WhatsApp). We are running a knowledge-based rather than a productivity-based education value chain with the tertiary sector at the top of this economically unproductive value chain.

To now beam our searchlight on our tertiary sector and their legacy and lasting economic contribution to their communities, how many of our tertiary institutions have financially buoyant alumni? How many of them are able to convince companies to invest in meaningful ventures with them? How many of them can attract substantial grants from NGOs, or are able to run commercially viable IGR ventures? And how many of them can charge realistic and reasonable student fees or can use government funds for mostly building infrastructure as opposed to simply paying salaries and pensions?

READ ALSO: Adulthood Na Scam!

In almost all the universities in Nigeria today, apart from accommodation, transport and commercial food activities, and some consulting jobs here and there, what else can they provide in their communities? UNIBADAN, our premier university, for instance, if I were to take it out of Ibadan today, what would Ibadan miss outside of the aforementioned sectors after domiciling there for more than seventy years?

The educational disconnect of most of our outputs to our economic requirements is why ASUU are on the back foot in these ongoing negotiations. Until there is a measure of financial independence where the government’s contribution should ideally not be more than thirty to forty percent of university finances covering mostly infrastructure, the government would ceaselessly and mostly be calling the shots.

ASUU for now are in a rightful battle of wits pitting moral conscience against financial realities. Moral compass versus brutal financial dependence is why the government can call their bluff and hence the language and posture of the Ministers of Labour and Education. Who is holding who by the neck?

Nigeria, led by the tertiary education sub-sector, needs to realign itself to the economic requirements and advancement of the nation via its curriculum, and our universities need to increase their IGR ventures, partake in commercial partnership ventures (be they agricultural, agro-industrial, purely industrial, tourism and hospitality and entertainment – we are spoilt for choice basically) and then they can detach themselves from the wholly apron strings of the government. Only then can they truly have any worthwhile bargaining chips. UNILAG’s recent foray into automobile partnerships (thankfully after mostly just being domiciled for decades in Akoka) is a massive step in the productive direction beyond accommodation. Transportation, food provision activities and the consulting jobs within the Lagos environs it is geographically fortunate to have access to are to the advantage of the institution which the runners should put to its maximum benefit.

All other universities should borrow a leaf from this productivity-driven and employment-generating initiative. This same template should be cascaded down to the polytechnics, colleges of technical education, including the secondary and primary sub-sectors where our masters and doctoral research students could be of more productive use than the prevailing orientation geared towards producing countless theses and publications for citations in (usually foreign) journals. How this education template adds to Nigeria’s economic productivity is open to debate.

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Our education outputs should be driven more by creativity, independence, entrepreneurship and productivity values and ethos rather than the current majorly knowledge and theory-oriented graduates mostly tailored towards the management, administrative and professional streams of the economy. It is the surplus of these graduates that are the unemployed, underemployed or misemployed outputs of the current education template. One can almost make the claim that if no graduates come out of our university conveyor belts, we have enough graduates out there for a decade to run Nigeria’s current economic template which is overwhelmingly civil service and corporate sector-driven with minimal agro-industrial productivity.

Outside of the previously mentioned groups are those fortunate enough to be employed but now feel so overused or unappreciated that those of them who can afford it are increasingly japaing out the country in droves for greener pastures abroad. Ironically, many of them are doing well out there with the most notable of them being those from the health and information technology professions. Of what use then are they to us after our scarce educational resources have been invested in them? Beyond their diaspora remittances (thanks be to them for not forgetting us o…), the countries abroad get the best out of our investment in them.

Until a paradigm shift in the end-goals of our education orientation takes place, ASUU (and the whole education sector) would continually be fighting a morally justified and conscientious battle but devoid of the nation’s economic requirements and their own financially untenable realities.

The push-has-come-to-shove question we should endlessly be asking ourselves is, what would Nigeria lose, or to be more contemporary in thought, what has Nigeria lost economically with all the strikes to date outside of the accommodation, transportation and food marketing activities of the university communities? Whenever their economic impact starts becoming nationally fruitful, via more productive ventures, then universities can truly flex their economically oriented educational muscles.

Other than the above happening, with the post-strike ‘no work no pay’ agenda still playing itself out, it is impossible not to feel for ASUU – we are all human and with family members among them – but the brutality of economic realities portends otherwise and this determines (or rather has been determining) the language and posture, albeit downright unpleasant sometimes, of these negotiations.

I am deliberating withholding my real comment to this contributor’s daring message. His tangible and intangible dancing steps don’t move me; so also are his delightful rhythm and rhetoric. Why essentially? He is afraid to call a bad spade by its rightful name. And the bad spade is the current central government in particular. It is the wholesome woe of Mr. Owomolo and all those in his unwholesome category of the un-employed. Has this central government of wickedly wicked and maliciously malicious and vindictively vindictive officials, ministers and their supremely supreme Mr.-horrible-in-chief kept its pre-election promises to Nigerians? Has it kept all its agreements with ASUU? This vile central government of hollow tricksters and polifoolicians is the cause of our sorrowful sorrows and woeful woes. We must put the blame squarely where it belongs. ASUU’s moral battle against the unjustly unjust central government must be called by its rightful name. And we, dear compatriots, shall overcome those who are multiplying our pains day by day. ASUU forever!
Hooray! Hooray! Hooray! Thot! Thunder!!!!
Afejuku can be reached via 08055213059.

 

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Opinion

Adulthood Na Scam!

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Las Las! (1)

By Toyin Falola

Nobody go ask if you don chop
Nobody go send you free money
If you no get na you sabi
Adulthood na scam!
Lade

Nigerians have always been able to express their thoughts and views in the most straightforward and humorous ways. They accomplish this in terms of their actual conditions by using slangs, other gestures, or even dance moves. Slangs like “Adulthood na scam”, “Japa”, Sapa, Shege, and Las Las are sociolinguistic expressions that capture Nigerians’ thoughts and realities. When talented Lade created the “444” jingle for Airtel, perhaps only her close friends and family were aware that she was the composer of the catchy tune that had people bobbing their heads and lip-syncing whenever the commercial jingle played on the radio or television (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sQHTY0FZins). I love the song so much that I went in search of her!

In Adulthood na Scam, Lade, in her melodic voice, sang about how things are for grownups in the country, and the song quickly gained popularity among Nigerian young people and even adults. Being an adult includes the hustle and bustle, the need to have good financial standing, getting less attention from others, and eventually yearning to revert to childhood. Many individuals identified with the song and concurred with the singer that life as an adult is not as idyllic as they had imagined or would experience it, and they wish they could go back to being kids. The phrase “Adulthood na scam” was largely agreed upon by the populace.

READ ALSO: An Encounter With Toyin Falola: Between Celebration And Canonization Of Intellectuals

Mo gbe o!
My landlord wants my overdue rents
Baba Isola is dead!
I don’t have his number in heaven
I drank gari this morning
I smoked gari this afternoon
I don’t have gari left for the evening

Mama mi Isola is dead!
She gave me iresi for breakfast
Amala for lunch
Iyan for dinner
She does not pick my calls in heaven

My best friend at Unilag has sold his computer to buy rice.
He is a Lecturer 1
Better paid than Lecturer 2
Is 2 not greater than 1?
Mo gbe o!

I know Bose, a secondary school teacher at a high school that belongs to my friend. She only hopes for a meagre amount of thirty thousand naira at the end of each month. She is a graduate and a single mother, and also battered with enumerable responsibilities from her family, being the first child. From the N30,000 (taxable), she feeds herself and her innocent little boy. She pays her rent and struggles to do her duties as the eldest sibling of her low-income family. This is not only a sad story but one that tears the heart apart. Hurting, isn’t it? She begs friends and colleagues for money now and then. She is ashamed; her benefactors are tired.

Right on the Lagos highway in Ikorodu, Joseph lives in a one-bedroom apartment with three other roommates. I know him through a friend who hired his brother. He is well-paid. The joyful news is that Joseph is a very talented computer guru who works with a top tech company in Lagos. Recently, he was moved to one of their branches on the Island in Lekki. But the sad story is that the company has no plan to provide accommodation or transportation allowance. He earns N400,000 monthly but struggles to save N10,000 at the end of the month, so he goes from Ikorodu to Lekki every day, spending a lot of his salary on transport fares and nearly as much as the time he spends in the office to commute to work and back. He sleeps in his office from time to time. Luckily, or maybe not so luckily, for him, he impregnated his girlfriend, and now they have to live together. This means he will pay for the entire apartment if he asks the three other roommates to leave. He will also take care of his newly unwed wife and the baby. Sadly, the parents of this school-dropout girl have been demanding. Last week, he had to send N50,000 to his father-in-law, who is yet to make up his mind about the dowry list—all these responsibilities from a seemingly huge looking N400,000.

READ ALSO: No Bobo! No Zobo! (Part 3)

You, reading this, know more people than I do. You know their incomes. You know their stories. These are the lucky ones with jobs!

The National Bureau of Statistics and the United Nations Office have been conducting the “Corruption in Nigeria Survey” since 2017, and they successfully did so in 2017 and 2019. This was done after receiving responses from 33,000 Nigerians at least 18 years old in the 36 states. In the study, they listed the main issues facing the country, which impact the realities of Nigerians. These include ethnic animosity, drug trafficking, corruption, high living expenses, unemployment, and issues with infrastructure, housing, health care, and education.

The slang Adulthood na scam! raises concern about how the low standard of living in the country affects citizens, as growing up means you will have to start taking responsibility amid a high unemployment rate and the low probability of getting a job that allows you to live comfortably. Unemployment is one of the most pressing problems in Nigeria. Thousands of youths with qualifications have to endure years at home doing nothing despite the responsibilities that come with age. According to Trade Economics, the youth unemployment rate in Nigeria increased to 53.4 per cent from 40.8 per cent in the second quarter of 2020. An increase like this impacts adulthood in the country; many youths are stranded or unable to shoulder the responsibilities and expectations of this stage of life.

There are three stages to life; first, you are a child, then you become an adolescent, and later an adult. According to an Encyclopaedia, childhood begins at age one and ends circa age 12-13, after which adolescence begins, where individual transitions from childhood to adulthood. This Encyclopaedia puts adolescents between 10 and 19 years; it is the shortest of the three stages of life. Adulthood takes a larger share of one’s life. In many countries, individuals are considered adults when they reach the age of 18. Wahala arrives!

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As a child, one lives a relatively easy life, and the major difference between most rich and poor children lies in the care they receive. At this stage, you can play as much as you want. Your parents would be happy to have you away so you can have fun, and as long as you do not suffer bodily harm, everything is fine, and you can always come home to ready-made meals. During this stage, you earn ridiculous amounts of money, material gifts, and love, especially if you are a cheerful, smart, and witty kid. Children are unconditionally loved, and their only nightmares would be the lack of freedom of speech, thought, and choice, as well as the numerous errands they are made to run.

During adolescence, youngsters try to prove to others around them that they are no longer children but are now grownup. This is where the suffering begins. You are put in many rough situations to demonstrate that you are no longer a child and can face life’s challenges. At this stage, your wants and needs increase geometrically, and the rate you get free money and other gift items decrease arithmetically, putting you in a tight angle. Also, the unconditional love you receive as a child reduces gradually, and the love you get will now be determined by your looks, behaviour, and efficiency. However, the joys of being an adolescent lie in the fact that you can now access more freedom of speech, choice, and thoughts, and most of the time, you are in charge of younger people and can lord over them like a real adult.

The adulthood stage is the last. It begins around 18 to 20 years of age and is maintained for the rest of one’s life, making it the longest stage. This time, you are as free as the birds in the sky; there is total freedom of speech, thought, and choice. At this age, you either receive love or hate, depending on what kind of grownup you are. This age can be tasking as adults like you, adolescents, and children expect you to make things happen. Your finances will largely depend on how you earn, how much, and how you spend. Your wants and needs, which now include that of the children, adolescents, and adults under your care, will never end. Do not expect material or monetary gifts at this period of your life because they will reduce geometrically.

An average child wants to leave the childhood stage and be an adult. They envy the adults’ freedom. One of the biggest pains for a child is waking up early when school is in session while the adults relax and do their things at their own pace and time. Children want to grow quickly to that level and be free of the school burden. They envy adults who are rich and long to get to this stage of life where they have their own money (not as gifts). However, these children fail to realise that adulthood comes at a steep price. Adults only give out money after taking care of a long list of bills and responsibilities, and being present when their children go to school is also part of their duties as parents. Since no one explained this to the young ones, adulthood looks like a paradise to them, so when they get to that stage and face the reality that adulthood is not what they thought it would be, frustration sets in.

This type of frustration inspired Lade’s “Adulthood na Scam,” which means being an adult is a fraud. Lade sings about how adults do not get free money, how no one cares about an adult’s well-being, how they have to hustle all day to make ends meet, and that they must manage their finances and pay bills. If we are being realistic, is adulthood a scam? Or is it that some adults do not know how to manage their affairs? Or is it the environment that has made life torrid for adults?

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Firstly, the hustling part of adulthood is non-negotiable. It is the backbone of adulthood. As an adult, you need a source of income, if not several, to sustain your life. This does not make adulthood a “scam,” as it is just normal. As an adult, you become the giver rather than the receiver; therefore, you should expect the rate at which you receive freebies to reduce significantly, and you should start giving more. This is another reason the hustling part of this stage of life cannot be negotiated.

Secondly, how adults manage their finances will determine whether they consider adulthood a scam. Many people cannot make a scale of preference or even differentiate between wants and needs; they just spend on anything and everything. Most times, people spend on things that do not add value. Expensive clothes, jewellery, alcohol, and so on, all on a relatively small budget that would cover their needs and take care of their younger ones. This means they must work extra hard to tick all their boxes, and surely, this set of people will believe that adulthood is a scam.

Lastly, society or the environment plays a major role in this matter. More developed societies like the United States of America and China have better economies, unlike Nigeria; therefore, it will be easier for adults to survive in these societies than in Nigeria. In America, for instance, one may get a job and a car at 18 (a fresh adult), even if it is on loan. Sadly, such is not the case in Nigeria, where adults in their late twenties struggle to secure a job that does not take care of their needs, let alone secure a loan for a car.

“Adulthood na scam” is largely based on the adult’s perspective and the realities of their localities. To some, adulthood is the survival of the fittest! They have chosen to kala and daju, ignoring every responsibility of being an adult. Instead, they adopt the stance that las las everybody go dey alright!

Adulthood is not a scam; scamming is for adults! I still have space for adoption if you want to end adulthood and become my baby. Not babe!

Falola is a Nigerian historian and professor of African Studies. He is currently the Jacob and Frances Sanger Mossiker Chair in the Humanities at the University of Texas at Austin.

 

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