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Correlation Between Voters’ Choice And Personality Types



Correlation Between Voters' Choice And Personality Types

By Grace Ego Omoni
Nigeria is at it again! The 2023 Election year is fast approaching and preparations are being put in place by our political parties to ensure that their candidates are voted into power and public offices to rule and reign again. How prepared are the electorate to ensure that the right people are voted in and not by just putting round pegs in square holes?

I heard a middle aged drunk singing this song when he saw a car decorated and painted with all sorts of captions and surrounded by men, women and youths! Hear him:
“Dem don come again
Dem don come again
My people, dem don
come again oh,
Wisdom come and take control!”

Those surrounding the decorated car were engrossed in the instruction being passed on to them by the party vanguards. However, the onlookers listened to him. While some called him names, the song got a few of us thinking! Yes, they have come again with their recurring stories of deceit!
The song reminds me of a young man who forgot to remove the pins in the collar of his wedding shirt. Right there sitting while waiting for his bride, the pins started pricking him. He started screaming: “they have come again”, ”they have come again”! The best man quickly led him outside only to discover that there were pins in the collar!

The young man would have avoided this embarrassment had he been more observant and careful, he would not have suffered such pains. A stitch in time, saves nine. The drums are beating already and the tempo is increasing by the day! The 2023 General Election is here and now. People are already grouping and pockets of secret campaigns are being organized in nooks and crannies of different communities with the same cock and bull stories by the same die hard and unrepentant politicians behind the scene. Sad enough, their followers are the same gullible vulnerable men, women and youth who choose to love the beautiful veil that covers the ugly face ; who choose to suffer again and again!

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This got me thinking. What type of people make up the electorate? Do they really understand what election is all about? Is there any correlation between voting choices and personality types?
Can a change in personality type bring about a better voting behaviour and right choices for the people?

This is the formal process of selecting a person for public office. Simply put it is the process of either accepting or rejecting a political proposition by voting. It is a formal group decision making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiples of individuals to hold public offices. The expectation is that the chosen ones will meet the expectations of the voters in terms of good governance. Where the elected perform creditably well, there is the likelihood that such would be voted in again. Peradventure, the chosen fail to satisfy the electorate in their discharge of duties, common sense demands that such would be rejected at subsequent elections. This is the normal process in a sane society. However, the contrary is the case in Nigeria. It is a consensus by observers that this nation is characterized by poor governance and failure by the chosen ones to meet with their promises during elections to the dissatisfaction of those who voted them in.

The irony of it all is that, the same people are out again canvassing to be voted for. The same voters who brought them in, who are dissatisfied with the performance of these public officers are the ones now praising and giving these failed public officers support. What has gone wrong? Have the electorate been hypnotized? What kind of personality types do we have in Nigeria?

Personality Types in our Society:
Psychologists like Carl Jung and Carl Rogers talk of different personality types but my own discussion is based on how some Greek philosophers categorized man including my own proposition.

READ ALSO: Culture Of Denial And National Development

These are the tribesman, the idiots, the citizens, the goats and the oppressors.
The Tribesman: These are people who are loyal to their ethnic, religious, club or political groups and are ever-ready to support, vote and die for the candidate whether such can deliver or perform well in office. They are blind to the weaknesses of their man whether he is a thief, a liar or a nonentity!

The Idiots:
These are not necessarily stupid or foolish as we often regard the term. According to the Greek philosophers, they are people who do not care. They do things without seeing it as being wrong. Such can cheat during exams, steal and snatch ballot boxes with fun, litter the streets with refuse, make noise with their sound system without realizing that they are constituting nuisances in the environment. Those in government who embezzle and those who hear about these things and support them or are careless about the negative effect of these evils in the society are “idiots”

The Citizens:
These are people that like to do things the right way. They respect the laws and obey them. If in government, they will not steal or lie. They will not cheat in examinations. They are efficient, compassionate and engage in projects that will benefit the people they are serving.
These Greek philosophers conclude that the citizens are only about 10% in any nation and that the tribesmen and the idiots are about 90%.

The Goats:

I came across a Yoruba poem years ago as a young primary school teacher titled: “Ewure”. As I was reflecting on this forthcoming election and how intending voters are responding to it, the description of ” Ewure” by the poet came to my mind again! Here it is:
Ewure je eran ile
To ma njiya pupo
Nitori aigboran re.
Ti won ba na ewure
Agbo eti meji pepe;
Koleju to se pe
A tun pada si bi ti
O ti jiya le kan.
Eyin omode e- gbo:
Ema se bi Ewure
Eran alaigboran.
The translation:
The Goat:
A goat is a domestic animal
That suffers a lot
Because of its stubbornness.
When a goat gets punished,
It will shake its two ears smartly.
Before the blink of an eye,
It will return to the place
Where it just got punished.
You children listen:
Do not behave like the goat;
An animal that is stubborn.

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Dear reader, the description of the goat is just like a perfect description of the electorate in Nigeria who have been suffering for the past years because of a failed government and who are ready to vote these people in again. A story was told by a guest speaker about a man who was asked to choose between hell and heaven. First, he went for observation: In hell everything looked rosy, plenty of food, enjoyment and no sign of the ugly stories about hell. Then he was transported to heaven for observation. There things were just normal and people went about their duties without much ado. It was time to make a choice. Without thinking twice, he chose hell. In a jiffy, he was back in hell but behold, the bed of roses was nowhere to be found. He realized that hell was a place of pains and suffering!

I ask again, who has hypnotized the people?
The Oppressors:

A man by name Chingiz Aitomatov wrote a book titled: “The Day Lasts More Than A Hundred Years” in which he allegorically described Josef Stalin’s type of governance. In the story it was asserted that Stalin demonstrated how to govern the stupid easily: he ripped the feathers of a live chicken, dropped it and moved a short distance away while dropping some corn along for the chicken. The chicken even though in pains with the blood dripping continued to follow the one dropping the food. That is the exact description of Nigerians and their oppressors ( the government of the day). After the rice, wrappers and bribes, what next?
I just want to ask: Are we chickens that do not have brains?

There seems to be a correlation between the electorate’s behaviour; that is their personality type and making choices during elections. The Greek philosophers assert that a person who is either a tribesman or an idiot and by extension a goat can become a citizen through proper training. When properly guided, the transformation of the electorate is possible ; hence, there is the need for

counselling intervention:
1) Political literacy is a must for all eligible voters. Seminars on voting and election should be periodically held by educational institutions, NGOs, religious organizations, the government for political awareness;
2) Training skills for the electorate by counselors on how to make choices should be made available to all eligible voters between now and the time for election;
3) Interactive sessions with the public to assess the performance of the political office holders should be organized. This will make the people to understand whether the elected office holders can still be voted in or not;
4) Counselling adjustment programs should be organized by different bodies on character/ behaviour training.. This can be done through film shows, lectures and plays;
5) Skills acquisition and empowerment programs should be open to both adults and youths. If the people have regular sources of income, they would not be dependent on oppressors who will only throw peanuts at them;
6) People should ensure that they get their PVC and come out to vote. The only way by which people can remove bad government is by voting at election not by staying at home;
7) Be determined to be a CITIZEN and reject being a goat or a tribesman or an “idiot” and never succumb to the oppressors.

You are made in the IMAGE of God who is all WISE and who does GOOD! Choose to join in transforming this country into an enviable entity.


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The Treacherous Notion Of Insulting Religious Sensibilities



The Treacherous Notion Of Insulting Religious Sensibilities

By Leo Igwe
I have been campaigning vigorously for the release of Mubarak Bala, who has been jailed for insulting the religious sensibilities of Muslims, some Muslims in Kano. In the past two years, I have engaged the notion of contempt for religion as a crime or an offence that warrants any sanction or penalty. I am of the view that criticizing religions and highlighting their misconceptions, shortcomings and absurdities is a moral and intellectual duty. I have encountered many religious apologists and fence-seaters who have tried to defend the notion that insulting religion is a transgression that should be punished. In this piece, I want to reiterate the implausibility and unintelligibility of the treacherous notion of insulting religion.

As expected the brutal murder of Deborah Samuel for making supposedly blasphemous statements has reawakened the debate on insulting people’s faiths. I have seen some educated Nigerians tacitly justify this obscenity implying that the alleged remark by Deborah Samuel constituted a punishable transgression. Sometimes they put it expressly stating that they do not support making disparaging remarks about others’ religious beliefs. Look, those who try to justify the notion of insulting religion either do not understand the nature of religion or are not good students of history especially the history religions in Nigeria and Africa. Do not get me wrong, I understand that people feel hurt when their well-cherished religious or philosophical views or icons are challenged, criticized, questioned, or ridiculed. But that is what is, and what it means to live in a free and open society.

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And this open-society feature is not peculiar to any people or culture. In a pluralistic society like Nigeria, people hold diverse views and opinions. These views may be offensive, hurting, or insulting to others’ beliefs and sensibilities, positions, and propositions. Some people’s religious sense is others’ religious nonsense. A person’s religious food is another’s religious poison. Clear and simple. People are bound to find other people’s religious or philosophical views and opinions objectionable and disagreeable. That is normal and should be expected. Nobody should expect to live in a society where there are no opposing or contradictory views and ideas. So instead of urging against insulting other people’s religious beliefs and sensibilities, which is a pretext for oppression, repression, and suppression of other religious and irreligious ideas, a case should be made for tolerance -tolerance of other religious and non-religious ideas and notions. A case should be made for respect for the rights of others to freedom of religion or belief, and freedom of expression, not respect for others’ religious notions. Ideas should not be respected. Human beings should be respected.

It is disingenuous to accuse people of disrespecting a belief or a religion, or to expect everyone to respect a particular religious icon. That is tyranny. That is a totalitarian tendency. Religious doctrines are to be believed or disbelieved, debated, confessed, and professed. Religions are made to be entertained, embraced or abandoned, renounced, examined and analyzed, accepted or rejected. In matters of faith, respect or disrespect is a factor of belief or disbelief. Christians who treat the Bible with respect do so because they believe that it is the word of God. Muslims respect Muhammad because they believe or are made to believe that he is the messenger from Allah or the greatest prophet of all times. Now, non-Christians and non-Muslims do not share these beliefs.

How does one expect an individual to respect a belief or doctrine that he or she rejects? What does it mean to insult a belief, that one thinks is mistaken, false, or untrue? Unfortunately, religion is replete with myths and misconceptions about the universe, nature, and how nature works. Many religious teachings are outdated and incompatible with many scientific and philosophical views. To be specific, how does one expect non-Muslims to treat the prophet of Islam with respect when they do not believe in his prophethood? How does one think that a non-Christian who is of the notion that Jesus never existed would treat Jesus with respect? The mistake many believers make is to expect non-believers to treat and respect their beliefs, objects, and personalities as they do. And as Germans would say: Das gehts lieder nicht(Unfortunately, that is not possible). That is not applicable. That is not healthy for society. Yes, that is not how religions operate.

READ ALSO: The Killing Of Citizen Deborah, Our Own Malala

Now think about it, the religions which demand respect are Christianity and Islam. Meanwhile, these are not the only religions and philosophies that exist in society. Why is it that believers, Muslims in this case, feel entitled to not be offended? Meanwhile, they espouse views and notions that going by their standards insult religious and irreligious beliefs and icons of others. For instance, Muslims claim that making disparaging remarks about the prophet of Islam is a red line. Understood. They claim that nobody should cross the redline without serious consequences. Fine. But in their everyday preaching and profession of faith, they cross the redlines of others; they make disparaging remarks about prophets and propositions of other religions and philosophies. In their profession of faith, Muslims dismiss other gods as non-existent; they downgrade other prophets. Don’t Muslims know that the recitation of Shahada is offensive, insulting, and provocative to many out there?

Muslims tell us that they love their prophets more than their parents, in fact, more than any human being. They tend to forget that people of other faiths and beliefs have a strong emotional attachment to their religious and philosophical icons too. And if people were to respond violently as Muslims often do to those who scorn their faiths and beliefs then there would be no peace in the world. There would be no Muslims or Christians, no believer or non-believer to respect or disrespect religions and philosophies.

It should also be noted that Christianity and Islam are faiths that missionaries, jihadists, and scholars from Europe, the Middle East, and Asia introduced to the region. These two religions owe their spread and dominance to the activities of those who ‘insulted’ and still ‘insult’ African traditional religious gods, prophets, and beliefs. So how does one make sense of the fact that the religions whose members ask that their icons be respected are out there relentlessly lampooning other religions and beliefs as a matter of divine mission and mandate? For centuries missionaries and proselytizers have in some cases, through physical and structural violence, and impertinent insolence toward African traditional world views and identities been furthering the cause of Christian and Islamic faiths.

READ ALSO: The Killing Of Nigerian Christian Student Has Everything To Do With Religion

The idea of insulting other gods, religions, and beliefs is embedded in the religious enterprise. Insulting religious beliefs is not alien to religions. Every religion blasphemes against other religions. Each religion claims to embody absolute truth and divinity as opposed to other religions that are fake or inferior, or custodians of minor/marginal gods. Interesting no religion is monolithic. Every faith is characterized by a plurality of views and doctrines; by competing and opposing sects, denominations, and traditions. These traditions have doctrines, and they make propositions that other faith traditions consider insulting or disrespectful. So insulting religious beliefs is part and parcel of the religious business. It is what religions do as a matter of fact. Instead of urging against insulting religious sensibilities, which is often a demand from members of a particular religion wherever they are in the majority, tolerant pluralism should be encouraged and fostered. Believers and non-believers should be urged to condone other religious and irreligious views. If anyone finds a view offensive or insulting, the person should challenge it, criticize it, scrutinize it, denounce it, examine it, and yes debate or debunk it. People of all faiths and beliefs should learn to accommodate and civilly engage positions and propositions that insult or disparage their faiths or beliefs whether they are in the majority or in the minority.


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The Killing Of Citizen Deborah, Our Own Malala



The Killing Of Citizen Deborah, Our Own Malala

By Hope O’Rukevbe Eghagha

Last week the video of a body set ablaze by a mob went viral on social media. It was preceded by the still picture of a lady dressed in red lying on the ground in a grotesque manner. Life was no longer in her. She had succumbed to savagery and jungle justice by overzealous morons who accused her, found her guilty and executed her in a most barbarous manner reminiscent of the Stone Age. She died a most horrendous death at the hands of her class or school mates. She was stoned to death by students at a College of Education. The barbarous act was carried out by some teachers of tomorrow. What kind of educators would these teachers be in future? Do they recognize Nigeria? Do they realise that Nigeria is not an Islamic Republic, that is, supposing an Islamic Republic will tolerate such a murder? How are the killers better than bandits or terrorists currently plaguing the northern part of Nigeria? We have allowed a monster out of religion, fighting wars for God who obviously did not ask us to fight for Him!

It turned out that it was the body of Citizen Deborah Yakubu, a student at Shehu Shagari College of Education Wamako Sokoto, who had been murdered because, according to her traducers, she blasphemed the name of Prophet Mohammed. In a class WhatsApp platform, she had complained that the platform had been inundated with religious posts and that the platform should be used for what it was created for. Her traducers claimed she made some uncomplimentary remarks about Prophet Mohammed. Later a sweaty nincompoop, with the dark looks of a savage, released a video in which he claimed gleefully that he was the one that killed the lady in question. This in 21st century Nigeria? This is unacceptable. It is indicative of the deep division between world view of extremists in the north and the rest of the country.

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The ugly news has not been carried by cable network stations. If it happened in Afghanistan or the Middle East, her death would be on the airwaves. Fortunately, and appropriately, the Sultan of Sokoto, leader of Muslims in the country, has spoken against the murder. But he should not stop there. We expect him to personally get involved and ensure that the killer is paraded before the press as a common criminal. Except he does this, we would see the condemnation as mere lip service. The irrepressible Father Matthew Kukah has also condemned the murder and called on the government to fish out the perpetrators for the right punishment, stating that ‘’the only obligation that is owed her immediate family, her fellow students and the school authorities is the assurance that those who are guilty of this inhuman act, no matter the provocation, are punished according to the laws of the land’. Writer Gimba Kakanda wrote on a Facebook post: ‘the barbarism that transpired in Sokoto today has no basis in Islam, and it indicts us all. This culture prevails because past self-appointed punishers of blasphemers got away with their crimes. Whether in Islamic jurisprudence or our secular law, there’s no place for jungle justice, no matter how any offended mob feels’.

But the misguided zealots don’t feel any remorse. Some posts which followed the gleeful announcement on social media are instructive. The killer whose photograph is prominently displayed on social media boasted: ‘I killed her. I burnt her. You can see the matchbox I used in setting her ablaze’. One Muhammed Mode Gagi wrote, just as Bilyaminu Ladan, Sirajo Isiya and Balkisu Umar Ibrahim that: ‘You have done well, may God increase the status of Prophet Muhammed (s.a.w). Sufiyenu Yabo then concluded it: ‘Praise be to God. May Allah reward you with paradise! Which God? My question is if the head of Muslims has called it murder, from which book did the young Muslim boys and girls learn that to inflict jungle justice on a woman who supposedly blasphemed is carrying out a divine injunction?

I must state from the outset that no one has the right to insult another religion, either directly or indirectly. Christianity and Islam are the two major religions in Nigeria. Adherents must know their boundaries. To insult Prophet Mohammed is unacceptable. But it is also unacceptable for an individual to take the life of another citizen in the name of religion. This is how religious wars start. Pause for a minute and imagine what it would be if Christians in Sokoto decide to take the life of a Muslim youth in vengeance. Or if in the Christian-dominated south a Christian family carries out a reprisal attack. An endless cycle will start, the end of which no one can predict. Therefore, the Sokoto State government must rise to the occasion and bring the culprit to book.

READ ALSO: The Killing Of Nigerian Christian Student Has Everything To Do With Religion

There had been other killings in the name of religion in the past. In 1995, one Gideon Akaluka was decapacitated by Muslim fanatics for blasphemy. Nothing came of it in the form of punishment on her killers. In June 2016 Mrs. Bridget Agbaheme was brutally murdered by suspected Islamic extremists in Kofar Wambai market Kano state, over allegations that she blasphemed the name of the Holy Prophet. Except the government takes a decisive action against such criminals, more of such acts will occur in future.

The killing is most incendiary. It is provocative. It could trigger off sectarian war. As we know, religious wars are difficult to contain. The Christian Association of Nigeria should get actively involved to ensure that Deborah does not die in vain. Justice must be pursued to serve as a deterrent. The NBA and allied associations must rise to the occasion. Ebun-Olu Adegboruwa (SAN) has urged NBA-SPIDEL not to hold any conference in the state where a Nigerian citizen has ‘been brutally murdered and burnt to death…we should make a statement to the government by cancelling the conference and hold it in a neighbouring State in the North’.

What has given Pakistani activist Malala Yousafzai an international stature? It is the attack on her person by religious extremists because of her stance on education. Deborah is our own Malala, and she should be accorded that status. Her death at the hands of ignorant and defiant zealots diminishes all of us. I expect the president, the state governor and high-ranking state officials from the North to condemn the killing and order the arrest of the killer. The college management should suspend the suspect pending full a investigation. There will be no love lost between the killer squad leader and other Christian members of the class and indeed all other Christian students in the college. Some acts, small as they are, help to define a nation. Except the government punishes the killer, the government would inadvertently be promoting the emerging narrative that there is no ‘One Nigeria!

POSTSCRIPT: After submitting the essay, further developments made me return to my submissions. The culprits were appropriately arrested, leading to mass protests. There have been riots in Sokoto, with houses and property belonging to non-Muslims being targeted. Alhaji Atiku has withdrawn his condemnation of the killing of Citizen Deborah. He has lost votes, thereby. The state government has imposed a 24-hour curfew. But soldiers ought to be drafted to quell the riots that have led to the destruction of lives and property. This is no way to grow a federal republic! Government must stand firm! Mr. President must condemn the arsonists.

Professor Eghagha writes from the Department of English, University of Lagos.


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The Killing Of Nigerian Christian Student Has Everything To Do With Religion



The Treacherous Notion Of Insulting Religious Sensibilities

By Leo Igwe

Humanists are outraged by the gruesome murder of a female college student in Sokoto in Northern Nigeria. Such a horrific act is a sordid reminder of the threat of Islamic extremism in Nigeria. Muslim students at Shehu Shagari College of Education accused a Hausa Christian, Deborah Yakubu, of blasphemy; they beat their colleague to death and burnt the corpse. Ms. Yakubu reportedly protested against posting religious messages on the student Whatsapp platform. Her protest angered some Muslim students who mobilized and subsequently killed her.

The brutal killing of Ms. Yakubu is not an isolated incident. Many Muslims and non-Muslims adjudged to have insulted Islam or its prophet have suffered a similar fate in the region. In 2007, some Muslim students in Gombe lynched their female Christian teacher for desecrating the Quran. There have been other violent attacks and murders of alleged blasphemers in Muslim-dominated areas in Kano, Niger, and other parts of Islamic Northern Nigeria. Persons accused of blasphemy have been sentenced to death by sharia courts in Kano. Others like Nigerian Humanist, Mubarak Bala, have been given long prison sentences. Muslim clerics and state officials have openly and publicly endorsed the execution of blasphemers.

Police Arrest Two Over Killing Of Female Student For Blasphemy

The late Deborah Yakubu

For instance, in 2015, Islamic theocrat, Bashir Ahmad tweeted this comment after a sharia court sentenced nine persons for blasphemy: “I cannot pretend or keep silent. I support the death penalty for blasphemy. That is my belief and I will never support #SaveKanoNine”. So it is patently untrue and misleading for anyone to say that the brutal murder of Ms. Yakubu and other blasphemy-related attacks, sanctions, and bloodletting in Northern Nigeria have nothing to do with religion. No, they do. As the case of this Christian woman has shown, these bloodletters are usually motivated by their religious belief in the prophet of Islam; Islamic teachings and orientations, and by their quest to placate Allah and inherit the paradise in the hereafter.

READ ALSO: Police Arrest Two Over Killing Of Female Student For Blasphemy

So if Nigeria wants to end these horrific attacks and killings, it should take a critical look at how Islam is professed and practised in Northern Nigeria. Nigeria needs to determine if Islam is a religion or a death cult; if muslims operate within the law or above the law and if Islamic privilege is a state policy. Look, Islam has a history of violence and bloodletting that persists. The government must admit that jihadist Islam is entrenched and pervasive. Boko Haram militants are not only in the Sambisa forest. Islamic extremists exist and operate in several mosques, courts, police, and army stations. Boko Haram jihadists and their sympathizers are not a small minority as some people claim. They populate government houses, schools, colleges, and universities.

So it is high time Nigeria confronted this big elephant in the room, that is Islamic extremism. Muslim leaders should stop living in denial; they should stop pretending that jihadist Islam is not a huge problem. Muslim leaders should stop deceiving the world and saying that blasphemy killings and attacks have nothing to do with religion, in this case, Islam. No, these killings have everything to do with Islam as practised in Northern Nigeria. And the way Islam is preached and practised in Northern Nigeria must change. The government must address this toxic tendency and habit that makes muslims value their religious and prophetic icons more than human lives. Nigeria must tackle this savage and dreadful inclination of muslims to kill, attack or maim others at the slightest provocation. Nigerian authorities should monitor the activities of Muslim clerics because these religious actors use their preaching and Quranic indoctrination programmes to radicalize young Muslims and turn them into merchants of hate, violence, death, and destruction. The government should protect the rights of those who criticize the teachings and traditions of Islam and its prophet because it is through a critical examination of Islamic doctrines and practices that these extremist ideas and tendencies could be exposed and expunged.

READ ALSO: Female Student Burnt Alive Over Blasphemy

Nigeria should take measures to end impunity and ensure that those who indulge in blasphemy-related attacks or killings are brought to book. Those who carry out these barbaric acts should not go scot-free. They are murderers and criminals and should be arrested, prosecuted, and jailed to serve as a deterrent to others. Usually, when muslims attack or kill for blasphemy, no arrest is made, in cases where arrests are made, nobody is prosecuted; and in situations where some are charged to court, they are later acquitted. This culture of impunity must end if Nigeria must make progress in this 21st century. There should be serious consequences for blasphemy-related attacks. The Nigerian government should repeal blasphemy laws because as long as there are provisions that criminalize insults on religion, freedom of religion or belief and freedom of expression will not be guaranteed and these savage attacks in the name of Allah or Prophet Muhammad will continue.


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