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Correlation Between Voters’ Choice And Personality Types



BOOK REVIEW: Ayo Joan Olatoyosi's Thesis, Antithesis And Synthesis Of Life

By Grace Ego Omoni
Nigeria is at it again! The 2023 Election year is fast approaching and preparations are being put in place by our political parties to ensure that their candidates are voted into power and public offices to rule and reign again. How prepared are the electorate to ensure that the right people are voted in and not by just putting round pegs in square holes?

I heard a middle aged drunk singing this song when he saw a car decorated and painted with all sorts of captions and surrounded by men, women and youths! Hear him:
“Dem don come again
Dem don come again
My people, dem don
come again oh,
Wisdom come and take control!”

Those surrounding the decorated car were engrossed in the instruction being passed on to them by the party vanguards. However, the onlookers listened to him. While some called him names, the song got a few of us thinking! Yes, they have come again with their recurring stories of deceit!
The song reminds me of a young man who forgot to remove the pins in the collar of his wedding shirt. Right there sitting while waiting for his bride, the pins started pricking him. He started screaming: “they have come again”, ”they have come again”! The best man quickly led him outside only to discover that there were pins in the collar!

The young man would have avoided this embarrassment had he been more observant and careful, he would not have suffered such pains. A stitch in time, saves nine. The drums are beating already and the tempo is increasing by the day! The 2023 General Election is here and now. People are already grouping and pockets of secret campaigns are being organized in nooks and crannies of different communities with the same cock and bull stories by the same die hard and unrepentant politicians behind the scene. Sad enough, their followers are the same gullible vulnerable men, women and youth who choose to love the beautiful veil that covers the ugly face ; who choose to suffer again and again!

READ ALSO: Recycling Political Appointees And National Development

This got me thinking. What type of people make up the electorate? Do they really understand what election is all about? Is there any correlation between voting choices and personality types?
Can a change in personality type bring about a better voting behaviour and right choices for the people?

This is the formal process of selecting a person for public office. Simply put it is the process of either accepting or rejecting a political proposition by voting. It is a formal group decision making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiples of individuals to hold public offices. The expectation is that the chosen ones will meet the expectations of the voters in terms of good governance. Where the elected perform creditably well, there is the likelihood that such would be voted in again. Peradventure, the chosen fail to satisfy the electorate in their discharge of duties, common sense demands that such would be rejected at subsequent elections. This is the normal process in a sane society. However, the contrary is the case in Nigeria. It is a consensus by observers that this nation is characterized by poor governance and failure by the chosen ones to meet with their promises during elections to the dissatisfaction of those who voted them in.

The irony of it all is that, the same people are out again canvassing to be voted for. The same voters who brought them in, who are dissatisfied with the performance of these public officers are the ones now praising and giving these failed public officers support. What has gone wrong? Have the electorate been hypnotized? What kind of personality types do we have in Nigeria?

Personality Types in our Society:
Psychologists like Carl Jung and Carl Rogers talk of different personality types but my own discussion is based on how some Greek philosophers categorized man including my own proposition.

READ ALSO: Culture Of Denial And National Development

These are the tribesman, the idiots, the citizens, the goats and the oppressors.
The Tribesman: These are people who are loyal to their ethnic, religious, club or political groups and are ever-ready to support, vote and die for the candidate whether such can deliver or perform well in office. They are blind to the weaknesses of their man whether he is a thief, a liar or a nonentity!

The Idiots:
These are not necessarily stupid or foolish as we often regard the term. According to the Greek philosophers, they are people who do not care. They do things without seeing it as being wrong. Such can cheat during exams, steal and snatch ballot boxes with fun, litter the streets with refuse, make noise with their sound system without realizing that they are constituting nuisances in the environment. Those in government who embezzle and those who hear about these things and support them or are careless about the negative effect of these evils in the society are “idiots”

The Citizens:
These are people that like to do things the right way. They respect the laws and obey them. If in government, they will not steal or lie. They will not cheat in examinations. They are efficient, compassionate and engage in projects that will benefit the people they are serving.
These Greek philosophers conclude that the citizens are only about 10% in any nation and that the tribesmen and the idiots are about 90%.

The Goats:

I came across a Yoruba poem years ago as a young primary school teacher titled: “Ewure”. As I was reflecting on this forthcoming election and how intending voters are responding to it, the description of ” Ewure” by the poet came to my mind again! Here it is:
Ewure je eran ile
To ma njiya pupo
Nitori aigboran re.
Ti won ba na ewure
Agbo eti meji pepe;
Koleju to se pe
A tun pada si bi ti
O ti jiya le kan.
Eyin omode e- gbo:
Ema se bi Ewure
Eran alaigboran.
The translation:
The Goat:
A goat is a domestic animal
That suffers a lot
Because of its stubbornness.
When a goat gets punished,
It will shake its two ears smartly.
Before the blink of an eye,
It will return to the place
Where it just got punished.
You children listen:
Do not behave like the goat;
An animal that is stubborn.

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Dear reader, the description of the goat is just like a perfect description of the electorate in Nigeria who have been suffering for the past years because of a failed government and who are ready to vote these people in again. A story was told by a guest speaker about a man who was asked to choose between hell and heaven. First, he went for observation: In hell everything looked rosy, plenty of food, enjoyment and no sign of the ugly stories about hell. Then he was transported to heaven for observation. There things were just normal and people went about their duties without much ado. It was time to make a choice. Without thinking twice, he chose hell. In a jiffy, he was back in hell but behold, the bed of roses was nowhere to be found. He realized that hell was a place of pains and suffering!

I ask again, who has hypnotized the people?
The Oppressors:

A man by name Chingiz Aitomatov wrote a book titled: “The Day Lasts More Than A Hundred Years” in which he allegorically described Josef Stalin’s type of governance. In the story it was asserted that Stalin demonstrated how to govern the stupid easily: he ripped the feathers of a live chicken, dropped it and moved a short distance away while dropping some corn along for the chicken. The chicken even though in pains with the blood dripping continued to follow the one dropping the food. That is the exact description of Nigerians and their oppressors ( the government of the day). After the rice, wrappers and bribes, what next?
I just want to ask: Are we chickens that do not have brains?

There seems to be a correlation between the electorate’s behaviour; that is their personality type and making choices during elections. The Greek philosophers assert that a person who is either a tribesman or an idiot and by extension a goat can become a citizen through proper training. When properly guided, the transformation of the electorate is possible ; hence, there is the need for

counselling intervention:
1) Political literacy is a must for all eligible voters. Seminars on voting and election should be periodically held by educational institutions, NGOs, religious organizations, the government for political awareness;
2) Training skills for the electorate by counselors on how to make choices should be made available to all eligible voters between now and the time for election;
3) Interactive sessions with the public to assess the performance of the political office holders should be organized. This will make the people to understand whether the elected office holders can still be voted in or not;
4) Counselling adjustment programs should be organized by different bodies on character/ behaviour training.. This can be done through film shows, lectures and plays;
5) Skills acquisition and empowerment programs should be open to both adults and youths. If the people have regular sources of income, they would not be dependent on oppressors who will only throw peanuts at them;
6) People should ensure that they get their PVC and come out to vote. The only way by which people can remove bad government is by voting at election not by staying at home;
7) Be determined to be a CITIZEN and reject being a goat or a tribesman or an “idiot” and never succumb to the oppressors.

You are made in the IMAGE of God who is all WISE and who does GOOD! Choose to join in transforming this country into an enviable entity.


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Where Are Secular Lawyers?



Witch Burning, Impunity And Abuses Linked to Witchcraft Beliefs In Benue State
Dr Leo Igwe

By Leo Igwe

This question has agitated me over the years, and it persists. At a recent event in Uyo, Akwa Ibom state, a participant introduced herself as a member of the Christian Lawyers Association of Nigeria. Christian Lawyers Association? I wondered, Why Christian lawyers? Why should lawyers associate based on faith? Do we have a traditional religious lawyers association? Jehovah Witness Lawyers Association? Bahai Faith lawyers? Hindu Lawyers? I mean, why the religionization of everything in this country?

In northern Nigeria, the Muslim Lawyers Association exists. This organization is active. It features prominently in cases, especially those that concern religion, Sharia, or Islam. I guess there would be Sunni and Shiite Muslim lawyers associations. In 2022, over 30 Muslim lawyers came forward to defend those suspected of murdering Deborah Samuel in Sokoto. Meanwhile, no member helped prosecute the suspects. Muslim lawyers have strongly supported the execution and imprisonment of suspected blasphemers. They constitute the legal wing of Islamic separatism in Nigeria. This religious slant in practice, profession, and association of lawyers is disturbing and needs to be critically examined.

Look, a lawyer is a person trained to offer legal services. A lawyer is trained to represent an individual or organization in legal matters. S/he applies the law to specific cases, religious or nonreligious. The legal profession should be carried out without religious bias or favor. The law should be practiced to further justice, equity, and fairness, not in defense of a particular faith or belief. In practice, the law should be faith/belief blind. Unfortunately, this appears not to be the case in Nigeria. The tendency of lawyers to associate along religious lines is entrenched. As in other sectors of the society, religion has hijacked the legal profession and association. Lawyers practice and are pressured to practice law along religious lines. That is the raison d’etre of the religious (Christian/Muslim) lawyers association. And it is worrisome.

It has become pertinent to ask, where are secular lawyers? Put differently, where are lawyers beyond belief? By secular lawyers, I mean lawyers who are not religious, that is, lawyers who are atheists or agnostics; lawyers who do not take religion seriously. Secular lawyers include those who think that religious and spiritual matters are strictly private affairs and should not be the basis for legal practice, profession, and association.

Nigeria needs secular lawyers for the following reasons. First, based on section 10 of the constitution, Nigeria is a secular state, although not explicitly stated. Nigeria has no state religion. But theocrats often contest Nigeria’s secularity and openly propose that sharia and their religious books are superior to the constitution. The country needs lawyers to defend and uphold its secular character and help prevent the slow undoing of the secular gains and progress that Nigeria has made. Nigeria needs lawyers who can champion secularism. And secular lawyers can fulfill this need.

Second, Nigeria needs secular lawyers to professionally and constitutionally handle cases linked to faith or belief, such as witchcraft, blasphemy, and apostasy allegations. Lawyers who practice or associate on grounds of faith cannot be trusted to handle these cases because they are likely to compromise. They are likely to sacrifice their profession on the altar of their faith. For instance, it is a challenge to find lawyers to defend victims of witchcraft accusations because most lawyers, as people of faith, believe in the reality of witches and demons. Even though witchcraft accusations are against the law. Religious lawyers cannot be trusted to render professional services to victims of witchcraft branding. The same thing applies to cases of blasphemy and apostasy accusations. These accusations are linked to religious beliefs. Many lawyers do not want to profess law in ways that violate their faith. So, faith is a factor in hiring an attorney or getting a reliable solicitor.

In cases where Christians are accused of blaspheming Islam or insulting the prophet of Islam, Christian lawyers volunteer. They offer to help. Religious (Christian or Muslim) lawyers consider it a duty to defend their members. Christian lawyers defended Rhoda in Bauchi or the Christian barber, Elijah, in Kano. Muslim lawyers defended the suspected murderers of Deborah Samuel. But it is more challenging when the accused is a nonbeliever, an atheist, or a nonreligious person. Religious lawyers are reluctant to take up the cases. Religious lawyers cannot be trusted or entrusted with these cases because of concerns over religious bias.  Christian lawyers are guided by their christian faith and muslim lawyers are guided by their Islamic faith in their legal practice and representation.
So secular lawyers are needed. They can be trusted to represent in these cases because, in principle, they are free from the faith baggage that encumber legal representations by christian/muslim lawyers. Nigeria needs secular lawyers to keep church, mosque and state separate, and to ensure state neutrality on religious matters. It needs secular lawyers to tackle religious oppression, persecution and tyranny. Nigeria needs secular lawyers to uphold the rule of law and defend the freedom of religion or belief of all.
 Igwe, PhD,  is a board member of the Humanist Association of Nigeria.

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Minister Dangiwa Versus Cement Cabals



Felix Oboagwina

By Felix Oboagwina

Wednesday, 31st October 2023, CEO of BUA Cement, Abdul Samad Rabiu, paid a visit to President Bola Ahmed Tinubu in Aso Rock. As he walked out of the President’s office, journalists swarmed round Rabiu. To cut this narrative short, the billionaire businessman said he had come to assure the President that by March 2024, a bag of BUA Cement would start selling at N3,500 instead of N4,500 for which it then sold. The market leader, Dangote Cement, retailed for between N5,000 and N7,000 per bag. The hike not only alarmed but frustrated users because just two months earlier, Dangote Cement sold for a lower price of N3,500 max. The jump in price annoyed Nigerians. Thus, when the media went to town with Rabiu’s assurance of crashing the price, the news provoked much happiness nationwide.

Easier said than done, however, Rabiu’s optimism quickly evaporated into thin air. Mysteriously, thereafter, the price of cement went crazy and bizarre. The popular 50kg bag of cement flew to N10,000, then N12,000 and landed at N15,000. This year, Dangote Cement PLC reported a profit of N166 billion for first quarter of 2024.

In Nigeria, the dominant cement brands are Dangote, BUA, Lafarge and Elephant. For a country of 250 million, being serviced by four brands sounds like a monopoly or oligopoly, when a few companies exert significant control over a given market and together control prices by colluding with each other to promote uncompetitive prices. Today, manufacturers blame the skyrocketing rates on the falling value of the Naira. From the N700 per dollar pre-May 2023, the Naira had gone to exchange for N1,600 to the dollar, although it has now dropped to about N1,200. In addition to using the unhealthy Naira as scapegoat, cement makers blame the high cost on expensive gas and manufacturing equipment.

However, in the midst of the darkness, a silver lining appeared to appear from the midst of Tinubu’s cabinet ministers.

There are 46 ministers, although 13 of them wear the title of Junior Minister or Minister of State and 33 substantive ones. Suddenly, two substantive ministers called cement manufacturers to a meeting. The meeting by Dave Umahi, Works Minister, took place first on Monday, February 19, 2024. At that meeting, the minister and manufacturers fixed the price of cement at between N7,000 and N8,000 max.

The following day Tuesday in Abuja, Ahmed Dangiwa, Minister of Housing and Urban Development, also met representatives of the Cement Manufacturer Association of Nigeria (CEMAN). And there things exploded. Dangiwa displayed uncommon knowledge of all the tricks and shenanigans. He told the producers the implication of their pricing: “This is a crisis for housing delivery. An increase in essential building materials means an increase in the prices of houses.”

For Dangiwa, the reasons for the price hike were insufficient to justify such outrageous pricing. He confronted them with the bare facts, that the government stopped cement importation to enable local companies to increase output and lower prices.

Then he dropped the banger: “Government can open the borders for mass importation of cement, the price will crash, but you will have no business to do.”

When CEMAN said the association “does not interfere with the pricing of cement,” Dangiwa hit back with, “One person cannot be selling at N3,500 per bag and another selling at N7,000 per bag and you cannot call them to order. The association is expected to monitor price control; otherwise, the association has no need to exist.”

Where the President and the Works Minister pacified and appeared to have lost touch with reality, Dangiwa spoke to manufacturers in the language they understood. He threatened them. Government, Dangiwa said, could fling open the borders to tame prices.

He told them: “We know that some of the key components of producing building materials, especially cement, are locally sourced, so the recurring disproportionate increase in the price of cement is unacceptable and unreasonable. Key input materials such as limestone, clay, silica sand, and gypsum within our borders should not be dollar-rated.

“You cannot continue to give excuses and blame it on the dollar all the time. The worst part is that other building materials manufacturers take a cue from cement manufacturers, and once they see that you increase your price, they do the same. Recently, this is happening almost every week, and it has to stop.”

Fact is Nigeria has been hijacked by cartels. They have the country by the jugular mercilessly. Like cartels the world over, the Nigerian business profiteers nurse the motive of profiteering at all costs. Governments have been unwilling to confront them and break that hold today. Past pro-people regimes behaved otherwise.

General Murtala Mohammed imported Argentinean beef to force down the price of meat in the market.

General Gowon goes down in history for the Cement Armada. Ships upon ships upon ships of cement harboured at the Apapa Lagos port and crashed the price of the product.

In his own time, when the price of cement rose astronomically and the country complained, Goodluck Jonathan, in May 16, 2011, invited producers to Aso Rock and gave Dangote, BUA and others 30 days to crash cement price to N1,000. They succumbed.

While that drama played out, four cement manufacturers in February 2013 wrote to Jonathan to demand import licences, calling themselves “Cement New Entrants Stakeholders.” They each wanted to be granted papers by Jonathan to import 5 million metric tons of cement. According to them, granting import licences was a sure way of forcing down cement price to between N500 and N1,000 per bag and breaking the current monopoly of the “cartel” in the industry.

There is much to learn from this engagement. Monopolistic profiteering dictates cement pricing in Nigeria. The monopoly flaunts every excuse to justify the high price, which the proposed independent importers told Jonathan was “making Nigeria to be classified as the country with the highest price of cement in the world” with the ex-factory price then fixed between N1,400 and N1,800 per bag.

That is the way to go. Good history ought to repeat itself. Open the borders. Grant licences to import. Create competition. It will amount to a win-win for Nigerians because cement imports will create a new line of businesses as well as jobs through the value chain of importation, ports, clearing, re-bagging, warehousing, marketing, advertising, distribution and retailing. This the Housing Minister Dangiwa knows as a professional architect, a player in the building industry and a politician who wants to deliver pocket-friendly housing to the masses.

He had similarly maintained this humane stance when, as Managing Director of the Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria (FMBN, 2015–2022), he packed several human-faced, pro-people policies into his tenure. He processed N39.5 billion worth of refunds to 247,521 retired Federal housing contributors. Under him, FMBN made available NHF mortgage loans to 5,900 beneficiaries as well as home renovation loans to 77,500 people. He, also, led efforts to develop the Diaspora mortgage loan. This innovative scheme specifically aimed at assisting Nigerians living abroad to own homes without the weeping tales of getting duped by relatives or friends in Nigeria.

Minister Dangiwa knows that ONLY the cartels’ insatiable greed propels the price of cement sky-high. Exorcising this evil begins with taming the profiteers and making them sell cement to Nigerians at the N3,500 per bag that CEO of BUA Cement, Abdul Samad Rabiu, promised Tinubu at Aso Rock.

Oboagwina is an author, journalist and publisher, reachable via

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Money Without Family Relationship: A Time Bomb!



The Futility Of A Marital Chase
Dr Hope Nwawolo

Money Without Family Relationship: A Time Bomb!

By Hope Nwawolo

Recently, l came across a trending post of a 72-year-old pensioner, who was said to have worked all his life to raise his kids. The writer of the post claimed the man was abandoned by his children whom he trained in expensive schools, at home and abroad.  It was further disclosed that his 65-year-old wife, had relocated to live with her children abroad, on the excuse of taking care of their grandchildren. The writer went on to paint the gloomy picture of the man as a bachelor once again and battling with high blood pressure and other old age ailments. He cautioned men that women love their children more than their husbands, so they should plan for their future. He erroneously put the number of such women at 97%.

This piece is in response to the above biased claim which is also capable of causing friction in homes striving for unity and togetherness. He may just succeed to plant a negative seed of distrust and discord in the minds of fickle-minded men, who before reading the article were enjoying a blissful relationship with their wives. It may also be possible that the writer is a disgruntled person who did not succeed in marriage or relationship and believes the same must be for all men.

When we see people like the writer portrayed, we should ask a pertinent question. What was the man’s relationship with his wife and children when he was ‘struggling’ to fend for them? Unfortunately, some men fail to realize that there is so much more in family life than money. In as much as money ‘answereth’ all things, it cannot be exchanged for lasting family relationship. 

Some men literally shove their wives aside while making the money without realizing the children see the treatment of their mothers. When some of these children become independent and financially stable, they feel obligated to compensate their mothers for the loveless treatment received from their fathers. In other cases, some men do not value family time, no matter how short, and would not understand the emotional craving of the wives and children when they really need it. Often, it is these women, that stay in the  gap in their absence, making the children bond more with  them. And instead of appreciating such women for filling in their physical vacuum, some men rather get jealous of the bond and further drift away from the children, while blaming the wife. 

Today, wise men make out time to pray, discuss, and have family outings with their families. This is called relationship building, which cannot be broken by distance in the future. The children from these homes grow up with memories of fun and family laughter. The women from such homes, have strong relationship with their husbands and will not stay more than one month when they go to visit their children. You will hear them say to the children, “Please, l want to go back to my husband.”  Why is nobody talking about them?

There are also couples who travel together to visit their children from time to time. So what stops a man from also going to visit his children whom he struggled to train? Is it that they did not invite him, and why? Perhaps they have no relationship! 

The claim of 97% women who abandon their husbands for their children is not empirical, cannot be scientifically proven, and is unfair to women. It also has the tendency to put fears into innocent men who are building strong relationships with their wives and children. I pray such men do not abandon their effort after reading such a biased write-up…for their own good! Every marriage and family is unique and should have values and principles that will bind its members together today, tomorrow, and in the future. This should override the quest for money if it cannot be combined with building lasting relationships with every member of the family.

Nowadays, while many men believe their provision of money for the home is the answer to family issues, the women sacrifice key factors that cannot be monetized, and build lasting relationships with the children. These vital factors are their tears and worries, emotional support, and constant prayers, among many others. Observably too,  some women are also contributing financially to feeding and sometimes, schools fees, as well as other necessities of the families. Despite these, they  find time to ensure that the family bond is maintained as best as possible. Unfortunately, the ego rather than complex of some men will not allow them acknowledge or appreciate the effort of these women and which the children obviously witness as they grow into independence and financial stability.

Therefore, instead of blaming women for the unpalatable fruit of old age loneliness as a result of early years of family emotional neglect, men should attempt to juggle their quest for money with building relationships that will see them through the evening of their lives, with members of the families. 

 Nwawolo, PhD, writes via


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